Authors:D. Glavič-Cindro, M. Korun, and B. Vodenik
The environmental monitoring system in the counting room of Gamma-Ray Spectrometry Group at the Joǽef Stefan Institute was designed in such a way that it fulfills the requirements of the ISO 17025 standard without causing any additional burden to the staff. In addition to the environmental parameters (temperature, humidity and oxygen concentration in air) the voltage and frequency of the electric power supply and the pressure of the compressed air are monitored. The monitoring system is connected to the main computer and the software automatically checks the recorded data on a daily basis and issues automatic warnings if the recorded values are outside the prescribed limits of acceptance. In this paper, monitoring and control of the environmental and other parameters of the facilities in our laboratory that can affect the measurement result are presented, as well as their time dependencies, correlations among them and correlations between the temperature and the background peak count rates of the spectrometers.
Authors:S. M. Nurulain, H. Kalász, P. Szegi, K. Kuca, A. Adem, M. Y. B. Hasan, F. Hashemi, and K. Tekes
HPLC monitoring of pharmacokinetics was done in two body compartments of rats following intramuscular treatments with three different doses of K027, a bispyridinium mono-aldoxime type of antidotes to organoposphate intoxicated subjects. Reversed-phase HPLC separation with electrochemical detections was done to monitor the onset, the maximum level, and offset in K027 concentration. Serum level of K027 showed a fast onset, independently from the doses of K027. Drug level in brain was showing an essentially delayed kinetics.
A new generation of ion mobility spectrometers has been designed especially for the environmental monitoring due to toxic compounds in ambient air: phosgene, halocarbons, isofluorane, halothane, formaldehyde, ethylenoxide, acrolein, chemical warfares and many others. The IMS is equipped by means of tritium ionization sources, which have lower radiation hazards than nickel-63 sources. Aromatics are monitored by means of a special version using photoionization. Minimal detectable concentrations are in the ppb-range, mostly even below.
By means of bibliometrics and content analysis, both quantitative and qualitative, based upon JETRO Technology Bulletin data-base, the authors reveal some properties of overseas monitoring for industrial technology and technology policy by Japan External Trade Organization (JETRO), specifically, identify the shift of focus in regional and technical field dimensions, depict the different modes of representative technical areas, and trace the relation between technology monitoring and government policy action.
Authors:Senthilkumar Sivaprakasam, Moira Monika Schuler, Adel Hama, Katie-Marie Hughes, and Ian W. Marison
Biotechnological processes are rather complex systems especially regarding effective monitoring and control. Control of biotechnological processes requires reliable real-time measurements of critical process
Authors:Zoltán Döbrönte, Mária Szenes, Beáta Gasztonyi, Lajos Csermely, Márta Kovács, László Lakatos, Lilla Lakner, Gábor Mester, Tünde Pandur, Árpád Patai, Péter Pák, Gyula Pécsi, István Rácz, Krisztina Sarang, Anikó Stöckert, András Székely, and Lajos Varga Szabó
Cohen, L. B.: Patient monitoring during gastrointestinal endoscopy: why, when, and how? Gastrointest. Endosc. Clin. North Am., 2008, 18 , 651–663.
Authors:G. Breukelmann, A. Dalheimer, H. Dilger, and K. Henrichs
The incorporation monitoring of workers handling actinides is in many cases not possible by individual methods: The sensitivity of bioassay of methods (in vivo, in vitro) is not sufficient to detect amounts as required by the low annual limits of intake. Similar difficulties may occur with the use of radionuclides with very short physical half-lives. In these cases, the measuring of activity concentrations in the air is the only way to monitor the workers and to meet legal requirements. The essential problem connected with this approach is to make sure, that the air sample analyzed represents the average air inhaled actually. Correspondingly, the new system regulating the incorporation monitoring in Germany requires additional measures to ensure this representatively.
Authors:F. Padoani, L. Cella, X. Shen, and R. Werzi
A worldwide radionuclide network of 80 stations, including 40 with noble-gas-detection capability forming part of the International
Monitoring System, has been designed to monitor compliance with the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty. Pending entry into
force of the Treaty, the certified stations are operating provisionally and so far an experience of over 100 station-years
has been acquired for particulate stations. Noble gas systems are still under testing, though the operational experience is
fast growing. A maintenance strategy is being developed on the basis of the experience acquired so far and the analysis of
Botanical samples were used as monitors for zinc pollution resulting from vehicular traffic. Euphorbia terracina and Calotropis procera were the botanical monitors used in this work. Zinc concentrations were reported alongside a motorway stretch of 50 km. Variations
in concentration with respect to the perpendicular distance from the roadside were also reported. The effect of wind turbulence
and the wind direction on the concentrations is discussed. In addition, differences between open areas and confined areas
with respect to the elemental uptake were also discussed. INAA, using reactor neutrons, was employed for the determination
of Zn concentrations in the samples.
With the advent of Ge(Li) spectrometry, a high standard of purity for neutron flux monitors no longer remains an imperative
“must” and becomes rather superfluous. From this standpoint, commercial grade Al was investigated for its suitability as a
reactor flux monitor and was found to have a much greater practical utility than most of the monitors reported. Three Al foils
and one wire were randomly selected from four different commercial sources, and analysed for their Fe, Ga, Mn and Na contents
by neutron activation and high-resolution gamma-spectrometry. While Na was found to have a very heterogeneous distribution,
Fe, Mn and Ga concentrations in different splits of each type of Al were consistently uniform within ±2–3%. Eight possible
monitor reactions on Al, Mn, Fe and Ga have been recommended as neutron flux integrators for all the 3 components of a reactor
spectrum, viz. thermal, epithermal and fast, covering a wide range of flux levels from 107 to 1014n·cm−2·sec−1. The advantages and versatility of commercial grade Al as a pile neutron dosimeter are discussed.