We have collected sixteen total diet samples from two socioeconomic groups in Turkey by duplicate portion techniques. Samples
were homogenized with titanium-blade homogenizer, freeze dried and analyzed for their minor and trace elements mostly by neutron
activation analysis. Bread and flour samples were also collected from the same regions and analyzed similarly by instrumental
neutron activation analysis. We have determined concentrations of more than 25 elements in total diets, bread and flour, and
fiber and phytate in total diets. We have determined daily dietary intakes of these population groups, probable source of
elements through correlation coefficients, and enrichment factor calculations.
The intake of aluminum, arsenic, cadmium, lead and mercury via the daily diet by Iranian population groups was determined.
The relevant daily diets were prepared through dietary recording and duplicate portion, and the trace elements were measured
using analytical methods based on NAA, ICP and AAS. The results for the Iranian diets are discussed and compared with corresponding
ones from other countries. The project has been performed in the frame of a co-ordinated research project of the International
Atomic Energy Agency with participants from various countries.
In 1999 investigation, the needles of Sabina chinesis L. from 11 hot spot tourist cities extending over China were collected as biomonitors for evaluation of atmospheric elemental differences in those cities. Thirty five elements were determined by instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA). The experimental data reflected the environmental alteration in the cities that have different geographical position, population burden and industrialized level. Eventually by using the data processed by factor analysis (FA) and subsequent cluster analysis (CA), the cities were grouped into six sorts of the urban atmospheric deposition with corresponding elements.
Authors:P. Favaro, E. De Nadai Fernandes, E. Ferraz, and M. Falótico
Over the last decades the acceleration of the industrialization and urbanization processes together with the intensive agricultural
practices have resulted in an impact on the Piracicaba river basin, state of São Paulo, Brazil. The source rivers drain from
an area of low population density, absence of heavy industries, non-significant agriculture, native forest and reforestation,
the opposite is found in the middle part of the basin. Samples of riverbed sediments were collected along the basin for chemical
analysis. Results showed that the source rivers still preserve their natural characteristics, while the Atibaia river in the
middle part shows signs of pollution from the agricultural activity, industrial effluents and urban sewage.
Authors:M. Saiki, N. Sumita, O. Jaluul, W. Jacob-Filho, and M. Vasconcellos
In this study, blood serum trace elements, biochemical and hematological parameters were obtained to assess the health status
of an elderly population residing in São Paulo city, SP, Brazil. Results obtained showed that more than 93% of the studied
individuals presented most of the serum trace element concentrations and of the hematological and biochemical data within
the reference values used in clinical laboratories. However, the percentage of elderly presenting recommended low density
lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol concentrations was low (70%). The study indicated positive correlation between the concentrations
of Zn and LDL-cholesterol (p < 0.06).
This study aims to investigate whether known carcinogenic chemical elements in atmospheric deposition might be associated
with child mortality due to leukemia in the Portuguese population. A Bayesian hierarchical model was used to explore the association
between lichen biomonitoring measurements of four elements—As, Hg, Ni, Pb—and childhood leukemia death counts taken at small
administrative units. This geographical epidemiological study found a non-significant positive association between the risk
of childhood leukemia and levels of arsenic, mercury and lead, and a non-significant negative association between the disease
and the level of nickel. Lead seems to show a weaker association with childhood leukemia than arsenic and mercury.
Authors:N. Silva, J. Macacini, H. Fukuma, and E. Fenandes
Phosphoric acid is generally obtained from an aqueous process starting with the reaction between phosphate rock and sulphuric
acid. Due to their chemical similarity, uranium is usually associated with phosphate rock which during chemical processing
is partitioned to phosphoric acid. Uranium determination in this matrix is a very important task because of its ingestion
it could lead to radiological impact on the population. Therefore, a procedure was developed using an initial precipitation
with calcium hydroxide and evaporation, followed by instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA). The procedure was applied
to analyse fourteen uranium enriched phosphoric acid samples.
Authors:R. C. Eerlingen, H. Jacobs, H. Van Win, and J. A. Delcour
Gelatinisation temperatures as a function of moisture content were determined for potato starch. The native starch was then hydrothermally treated at a temperature 3% (Kelvin degrees) below the gelatinisation peak temperature and at moisture levels varying from 20 to 67% (by weight). Gelatinisation temperatures, temperature ranges and enthalpy values were affected for all treated samples. However, two sample populations could be distinguished: those samples treated under ‘limited’ moisture conditions and other samples treated in the presence of ‘extragranular’ moisture. A two-step hydrothermal treatment further increased the gelatinisation temperature, but the effect of the second step was small in comparison to that of the first.
Authors:A. Delben, F. Menezes, J. Delben, M. Coelho, and R. Ribeiro
Waste compromises environmental preservation as well human health in
many countries. Recycling is an alternative that sometimes represents the
only economical activity for a significant population in the big cities. Almost
3% of waste materials in Brazil are vitreous. Ceramic production adding waste
glass is possible with advantages of costs reduction associated to decrease
on firing temperatures and to the raw material itself. At present paper up
to 80 mass% of waste glass was added to clay. The sintering temperature decreased
linearly and the shrinkage increased with glass content, an effect more pronounced
for high glass amount.
Authors:S. Hayami, T. Kawahara, Y. Maeda, K. Inoue, and O. Sato
Iron(III) spin-crossover complexes [Fe(pap)2]ClO4. H2O (1), [Fe(pap)2]BF4. H2O (2), [Fe(pap)2]PF6. CH3OH (3), [Fe(CH3-pap)2]ClO4. H2O (4), [Fe0.5Al0.5(pap)2]ClO4. CH3OH (5) and [Fe0.25Al0.75(pap)2] ClO4. CH3OH (6)were prepared andthe spin transition behaviors of the complexes have been studied from magnetic susceptibility and Mössbauer
spectroscopy measurements. The magnetic properties of light-induced metastable state are measured using Hg-Xe light source.
T1/2is temperature at which the populations of the high-spin and low-spin species are fifty-fifty. Metastable HS is produced by
light irradiation at 5 K. T(LIESST) is the temperature at which the populations of the metastable high-spin species decrease to one half and cooperativity
factor Cis defined as the parameter which presents the strength of cooperativity. The value of T(LIESST) decreases as T1/2increases and the plots of T(LIESST) vs. Cshow linear correlation. The effect of cooperativity of the complexes on the relaxations in solid was confirmed for the iron(III)