Tropospheric ozone (O3) adversely affects growth and productivity of crops and also influences crop—pathogen interactions. Adverse effects of O3 on crops can be mitigated by antioxidants application. In the present study through lab and field experiments impact of O3 and antioxidants treatment to wheat was assessed on growth of Bipolaris sorokiniana (BS-75 strain) pathogen responsible for Spot blotch disease, pathogenesis related (PR) proteins and chitinase content. Results showed that growth of Bipolaris was significantly higher in elevated ozone (EO3) exposed plants as compared to control plants. Antioxidants — ascorbic acid (AA), tagetes extract (T) and quercetin (Q) application on culture media and wheat plants, respectively, retarded the growth of Bipolaris sorokiniana. Among the three antioxidants minimum growth of Bipolaris was observed in AA-treated plants as compared to control plants. Reduction in chitinase activity and PR proteins content due to EO3 treatment in wheat plants was 18% and 78%, respectively, as compared to control plants. Increase in chitinase activity and PR proteins content due to antioxidants treatment in wheat plants was 45% and 60%, respectively, as compared to control plants.
Flour from grains originating from plants infected artificially with cereal aphids were analyzed for glutenin and gliadin and total protein content, using Size Exclusion HPLC. Wheat plants were caged at the beginning of stem elongation. Cages were treated with 0.1 % methyl parathion. One week later, the caged plants were artificially infected with 5 aptera individuals of
Metopolophium dirhodum, Diuraphis noxia, Sitobion avenae
. It was found that aphid infection had significant effect on the glutenin and gliadin content, the total protein content and the gliadin/glutenin ratio. Both the glutenin and gliadin content was significantly higher in the seeds harvested from aphid infected plants. However, the gliadin/glutenin ratio was significantly lower in wheat flour prepared from aphid infected plants than in those from uninfected control. The most significant decrease in gliadin/glutenin ratio was caused by
M. dirhodum, D. noxia, S. avenae
infection followed by
at high-abundance. As the gliadin/glutenin ratio was significantly lower in flours made from aphid infected wheat seeds, it may be suggested, that aphid feeding results in decreased bread making quality of wheat flour.
Authors:R.H. Maich, M.E. Steffolani, J.A. Di Rienzo, and A.E. León
The objective of the present investigation was to examine the relationships between agronomical behavior and grain quality along ten cycles of a recurrent selection program performed under rainfed condition. Twenty-four lines, four for each one of the 0, 2, 4, 6, 8 and 10 cycles of recurrent selection, were evaluated for two consecutive years (2011 and 2012). The experimental lines were evaluated under conventional (CT) and no tillage (NT) systems. Grain yield and grain weight were determined and harvest index and grain number estimated. Flour protein content, sodium dodecyl sulphate sedimentation (IS-SDS) and lactic acid SRC (LASRC) were considered as end-use quality predictive tests. The Spearman correlation coefficient was used to measure the relationships among yield, its components and grain quality parameters. Within the context of CT, flour protein content was negatively associated with all the agronomic variables. The IS-SDS has a negative association with the grain weight; meanwhile, LASRC associated positively with all the agronomic variables. When wheat was grown in NT, the relationship between IS-SDS and harvest index, like LASRC with all agronomic traits, was positive. Confining the discussion to the CT results, after ten cycles of recurrent selection the highest grain yield achieved was accompanied by a decrease in protein percentage. However, the decrease in the percentage of protein in more advanced selection cycles was offset by an improvement of its quality.
The purpose of the study was to determine the influence of temperature and rainfall on selected quality traits and parameters of the yield structure in the period from kernel filling to maturity. The research material comprised 30 strains and variations of winter wheat collected by the staff of the Plant Breeding and Acclimatization Institute. The following traits were marked: resistance to pre-harvest sprouting, falling number and sedimentation value, protein content, 1000-kernel weight, the number and weight of kernels in an ear as well as the number of days from heading to full maturity.The least stable trait over the annual periods proved to be the resistance to pre-harvest sprouting and the falling number. It was observed that dry and hot summers tended to shorten the period between kernel filling and maturity and also to increase falling number and sedimentation value. Also, a very high correlation was observed between the number of days without rain and resistance to pre-harvest sprouting. In the years with a high level of rain and a balanced distribution of rainfall, there were significant negative correlations between the number of kernels per ear, on the one hand, and protein content and sedimentation value on the other, and also between the sedimentation value and the kernel weight per ear. In the years with the least number of rainfalls, such correlations were not observed.
Authors:G. Micskei, I. Jócsák, T. Árendás, P. Bónis, and Z. Berzsenyi
In a long-term experiment on continuous maize set up by Béla Győrffy in 1959, changes in biotic and abiotic environmental factors were studied over time. The long-term effects and stability of the cropping systems, the year effects and the genotype × environment interactions were analysed. The original aim of the experiment was to determine whether the NPK nutrients in farmyard manure could be replaced partially or entirely by inorganic NPK fertiliser. In the present experiment the effect of farmyard manure, mineral fertiliser and the year effect on yield and yield stability were studied for four years (2005–2008). Various levels of farmyard manure and mineral fertiliser induced significant changes in the yield, harvest index, thousand-kernel mass, grain number per ear and grain protein content.
Authors:Stefania Iwańska, Danuta Strusińska, and W. Zalewski
When evaluating the effects of yeast culture (Saccharomyces cerevisiae1026) supplied with or without a vitamin premix and mineral bioplexes on some intermediates and end-products involved in the synthesis of milk constituents in 30 early-lactation Black and White Lowland cows, no significant differences were found in the glucose level, mineral contents and enzyme activities of the blood serum. The effect of yeast culture on the availability of minerals for milk synthesis depended upon the dynamics of degradation of mineral bioplexes in the rumen and the cows' mineral status. The insignificant increase found in blood total protein content and the simultaneous small differences in blood urea nitrogen (BUN) and milk urea nitrogen (MUN) values in cows supplied with the yeast culture were probably associated with a high ammonia incorporation into microbial protein in the rumen, which increased protein supply for milk protein synthesis and decreased the nitrogen loss.
The chemical composition and thermal behaviour of crab, shrimp and lobster shells were studied. The lobster cephalothorax and its main parts also constitute important sources of both polymers. Their chitin and protein content are 20 and 40 %, respectively (dry base) while in these cases the proteins are less associated to the matrix than in the carapace. The chitin level in the chitinous concentrates isolated from different sources is over 80 % in all cases but the polymer characteristics change in dependence on the raw material.
Authors:M. Oak, S. Tamhankar, V. Rao, and S. Misra
Ten dicoccum wheats were analyzed for their physico-biochemical and milling properties to evaluate the pasta making potential. Dicoccums showed higher protein content and mixograph midline peak values compared to durum variety MACS2846. Mixographic properties of dicoccums were poor compared to durums, due to lower functional visco elastic gluten content. Dicoccums were poorer in milling properties compared to durums, due to lower test weight and thousand-grain weight. Among dicoccums, DDK 1025 showed high micro SDS sedimentation volume and strong mixographic properties, but values were still lesser compared to durum MACS 2846. HMW glutenin subunits in recently developed/released dicoccums were similar to durum parents and were different from the older dicoccums. LMW glutenin subunits, however, were similar to dicoccum parents, except in DDK 1025 which showed LMW glutenin subunits similar to durum wheat. To breed high quality dicoccum wheat for pasta products, breeders should select superior glutenin subunits composition, along with better mixograph properties, keeping morpho-botanical characteristics of dicoccum wheat.
The influence of sulphur fertilization on plant dry weight, grain yield and quality of wheat grain (var. Mulan) was investigated. Wheat was grown in the small plot field experiments conducted in 2011–2012. At the beginning of tillering, the regenerative sulphur fertilization increased dry plant weight and sulphur concentration in dry matter by 28.1–43.2%. Sulphur application reduced the number of unproductive tillers and increased the number of ears per unit area by 10–70%. The highest grain yield was achieved after the application of solid fertilizers YaraBela SULFAN and fertilizer YaraVita Thiotrac applied in the late growing stages. Sulphur fertilization slightly improved the values of grain specific weight, protein content and Zeleny sedimentation volume, but the effect was not significant. The effect of fertilizer application significantly differed between the studied years.
In 1975 Health Protection Branch approval was received to distribute125I-Fibrinogen Injection. Since that time over 30,000 vials of this drug have been prepared and used in the detection of venous
thrombosis. Diagnosis of venous thrombosis with fibrinogen leg scanning depends on the incorporation of125I-Fibrinogen into the thrombus, which is then detected by measuring the consequent increase of overlying surface radioactivity
using a small Na(TI) detector. The preparation of the drug relies on careful donor selection to minimize the chance of transmitting
hepatitis. Careful separation of the fibrinogen is necessary to ensure that a high concentration of clottable protein is available
for iodination. Fibrinogen having a clottable protein content in excess of 80% is iodinated using the ICl method. This product
must have a consistent high quality. The control procedures used to examine the quality of each batch are described.