technique could be developed to replace metallography as the primary control tool [ 3 ].
Thermalanalysis as a technique is used to evaluate the melt quality. By this method, some characteristic values are extracted from a cooling curve and/or its
Authors:A. Duran, M. Robador, M. Jimenez de Haro, and Veronica Ramirez-Valle
Mortars taken from the walls of three historical buildings in Seville: Pond of Patio de las Doncellas in Real Alcazar of Seville,
the Monastery of Santa Maria de las Cuevas and the Church of El Salvador were investigated.
The techniques employed were thermogravimetry (TG), differential thermal analysis (DTA), XRD, FTIR, SEM with EDAX, Bernard
calcimeter, granulometry, mercury intrusion porosimetry and mechanical strength tests.
The majority of the studied mortars consist of calcite and silica. Gypsum was detected in samples of four mortars from the
Santa Maria de las Cuevas Monastery and two from the El Salvador Church, whose samples were taken from the upper layers of
the walls, but gypsum was not detected in the internal mortars layers. Only in two of the samples of the Monastery, the presence
of cellulosic material as an organic additive was detected.
All the studied mortars could be regarded hydraulic, so much by results from ratios between mass loss due to CO2 and H2O, hydraulic module and assays of compressive strength. The values obtained by these three techniques are related, providing
good agreements between them.
These results give useful information that aids in understanding the technology of historic mortars, and how to plan the restoration
of these wall paintings.
Thermal properties of food systems are important in understanding relationships between food properties and changes in food quality. Concentrated food systems (low-moisture and frozen foods) are seldom in an equilibrium state and they tend to form amorphous, non-crystalline structures. Several glass transition-related changes in such foods affect stability, e.g., stickiness and caking of powders, crispness of snack foods and breakfast cereals, crystallisation of amorphous sugars, recrystallisation of gelatinised starch, ice formation and recrystallisation in frozen foods and rates of non-enzymatic browning and enzymatic reactions. Relationships between glass transition, water plasticisation and relaxation times can be shown in state diagrams. State diagrams are useful as stability or quality maps and in the control of rates of changes in food processing and storage.
Authors:L. Patron, P. Budrugeac, A. Balu, Oana Carp, L. Diamandescu, and M. Feder
behaviour of five polynuclear coordination compounds containing tartaric anion
as ligand, namely (NH4)3[LnFe(C4O6H4)3(OH)3] (Ln=La
and Eu), (NH4)2[PrFe(C4O6H4)3(OH)2] and (NH4)[LnFe(C4O6H4)3(OH)]3H2O (Ln=Nd and Gd) was investigated. The reaction progress
was studied by TG/DTA and FTIR measurements. Oxalates and oxocarbonates were
identified as intermediates. In the case of Ln=La,
Nd, Pr, Eu and Gd, pure LnFeO3 was obtained as final
decomposition product. The thermal decomposition of Eu-Fe compound, leads
to a mixture of mixed (ortho-ferrite (EuFeO3) and garnet
and simple oxides (Eu2O3 and
Micro-thermal analysis combines the imaging facility of scanning probe microscopy with the ability to characterize, with high
spatial resolution, the thermal behavior of materials. A sample may be visualized according to its surface topography and
also its relative thermal conductivity. Areas of interest may then be selected and localized thermal analysis (TMA and modulated
temperature DTA) performed. Applications of this new technique to study semiconductors, polymer blends and biological specimens
Authors:José M. Fernández, Alain F. Plante, Jens Leifeld, and Craig Rasmussen
remained elusive, as reflected by the large number of current methods used to describe it. The demand for a quantitative means to assess the complete SOM quality continuum, therefore, remains high [ 7 ].
While thermalanalysis techniques have long
Authors:D. Price, M. Reading, A. Hammiche, and H. Pollock
This paper describes recent advances in thermal analysis instrumentation which combine the high resolution imaging capabilities
of the atomic force microscope with physical characterisation by thermal analysis. Images of the surface may be obtained according
to the specimen's thermal conductivity and thermal expansivity differences in addition to the usual topographic relief. Localised
equivalents of modulated temperature differential scanning calorimetry, thermomechanical and dynamic mechanical analysis have
been developed with a spatial resolution of a few micrometres. A form of localised thermogravimetry-evolved gas analysis has
also been demonstrated. The same instrument configuration can be adapted to allow IR microspectrometry at a resolution better
than the optical diffraction limit.
Authors:M. Stenseng, A. Zolin, R. Cenni, F. Frandsen, A. Jensen, and K. Dam-Johansen
Thermal analysis is widely used in combustion research for both fundamental and practical investigations. Efficient combustion
of solid fuels in power plants requires understanding of properties and behavior of fuel and ash under a wide range of conditions.
At the Department of Chemical Engineering, Technical University of Denmark, thermogravimetric analysis and differential scanning
calorimetry are applied in order to investigate various aspects of combustion and gasification processes: pyrolysis, char
reactivity and ash melting behavior. This paper shows examples of the application of simultaneous thermal analysis in these
three research areas, and it demonstrates the flexibility of this technique in combustion research.
Authors:K. Pandey, K. Debnath, P. Rajagopalan, D. Setua, and G. Mathur
Studies have been made on differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), thermogravimetric analysis (TG) and dynamic mechanical
analysis (DMA) of binary blends of isobutylene-isoprene (IIR) copolymer and polychloroprene (CR) elastomers. Blends of IIR
and CR are incompatible and showed separateTg peaks in DSC curves similar to Tanδ peaks. However, addition of chlorinated polyethylene (CM) elastomer, as compatibilizer,
imparts miscibility between IIR and CR which could be judged both through DSC as well as by dynamic loss measurements (Loss
modulusE″ and Tanδ). The storage modulus (E′) showed variation of stiffness due to structural changes associated with the addition of compatibilizer. TG plots for these
blends showed improvement of thermal stability both by addition of a suitable compatibilizer as well as due to formation of
crosslinked structures associated with the vulcanization of the blends by standard curative package.
Authors:Denis A. Brosnan, John P. Sanders, and Stephanie A. Hart
chemical analysis is prescribed, except for cases in which magnesium hydroxide is found by petrography or X-ray diffraction [ 3 ]. In the latter case, differential thermalanalysis (DTA) or thermogravimetric (TG) analysis is used to quantify the amount of