Authors:K. Popa, C. C. Pavel, N. Bilba, and A. Cecal
The sorption of 60Co2+, 115mCd2+ and 203Hg2+ from diluted solutions (as analogues for radioactive waste waters) on ETS-4 microporous titanosilicate was studied at 277,
293, 313 and 333 K by measuring the sorption kinetics using a batch-method. The sorption of these radiocations was compared
by means of the distribution coefficient and of the sorption capacity. The maximum sorption capacities follow the order: 203Hg2+>115mCd2+³60Co2+. The thermodynamic functions of the sorption processes have been estimated. The increase of the absolute value of DG° with increasing temperatures shows that higher temperatures favor ionic exchange.
A new extractant, N-octanoyl-2-methylpiperidine (OMPPD) has been synthesized. The extraction of U(VI) with N-octanoyl-2-methylpiperidine (OMPPD) in nitric acid has been studied. The dependence of the partition reaction of U(VI) on the concentrations of nitric acid, extractant, salting-out agent LiNO3, and temperature has been studied. In the light of the results, the extraction mechanism is discussed. The synergistic extracted complexes may be presented as UO2(NO3)2(OMPPD)2 . The related thermodynamic functions were calculated.
The thermodynamic functions for the extraction of Sc3+ by liquid cation exchangers HD and HDEHP are determined radiometrically by the temperature coefficient method. The role of
diluent dielectric constant on the extraction of Sc3+ by HD is also studied. The thermodynamic parameters determined indicated that the free energy variation for the extraction
of Sc3+ by HD is mainly determined by the entropic terms arising from the hydration—dehydration process of the exchanged ions. In
the case of HDEHP as extractant, the free energy variations are determined mainly by the entalpic terms of the system.
Authors:Han Jing-Tian, Sun Guo-Xin, Shao Hua, Chen Shu-Feng, and Bao Bo-Rong
A new bifunctional extractant named phenyl-N,N-dibutylcarbamoylmethyl sulfoxide (PCMSO) is synthesized and characterized in
order to investigate its selectivity and capability in the extraction from acidic nitrate media in nuclear reprocessing. The
extraction of uranium (VI) with PCMSO in toluene has been studied at various concentrations of nitric acid, extractant and
salting-out agent (LiNO3). The mechanism of extraction is discussed in the light of the results obtained. The extracted species has also been investigated
using FT-IR spectrometry. The related thermodynamic functions were calculated. The IR spectral study was also made of the
The temperature dependence of the molar heat capacities of the tellurites Fe2(TeO3)3, Fe2TeO5 and Fe2Te4O11 were determined. By statistical manipulation of the values obtained, the parameters in the equations for the corresponding
compounds showing this dependence were determined using the least-squares method. These equations together with the standard
molar entropies were used to determine the thermodynamic functions Δ0TSm0, ΔTT,Hm0 and (Φm0 + Δ0T’Hm0 / T) for T’=298.15 K.
The phase diagrams of binary organic systems of benzidine with pyrogallol andp-nitrophenol give a double simple eutectic type phase diagram showing formation of a 1∶1 molecular complex with congruent melting point and two eutectics. The growth data on the pure components, the eutectics and the molecular complexes, determined by measuring the rate of movement of growth front in a capillary, justify the square relationship between growth velocity and undercooling. While enthalpy of mixing values suggest intermolecular hydrogen bonding, the excess thermodynamic functions reveal strong interactions among the components forming eutectics and addition compounds.
Authors:A. Turkin, V. Drebushchak, Yulia Kovalevskaya, and I. Paukov
Heat capacity of stoichiometric homogeneous spinel MgFe2O4 was measured from 5 to 305 K and thermodynamic functions were derived for temperatures up to 725 K using our previous high-temperature
experimental data for the same sample.
Anomaly in Cp was found at very low temperatures. Experimental data below 20 K contain large (up to 25% near 5 K) error arising from the
difference in the thermal history between the experimental series.
Magnetic contribution to the low-temperature heat capacity was tested, and the linear function was found to fit experimental
data better than the three-halves power derived from the spin-wave theory.
Authors:X.-C. Lv, Z.-C. Tan, Z.-A. Li, Y.-S. Li, J. Xing, Q. Shi, and L.-X. Sun
The (R)-BINOL-menthyl dicarbonates,
one of the most important compounds in catalytic asymmetric synthesis, was
synthesized by a convenient method. The molar heat capacities Cp,m
of the compound were measured over the temperature range from 80 to 378 K
with a small sample automated adiabatic calorimeter. Thermodynamic functions
[HT–H298.15] and [ST–S298.15] were derived in the
above temperature range with a temperature interval of 5 K. The thermal stability
of the substance was investigated by differential scanning calorimeter (DSC)
and a thermogravimetric (TG) technique.
A thermodynamic study of the influence of the thermal treatments (annealing), below the glass transition temperature, on the
thermal behavior and enthalpy of maltitol glass was carried out by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). An enthalpic effect
(exothermal) produced by the isothermal treatment of the quenched glass was found and measured.
The origin of the thermal effect was assigned to a physicochemical transformation of molecular associations in the solid (glass).
To achieve a correct description of the thermodynamic functions of glasses, another parameter, in addition to T and P, is introduced, namely the degree of advance of the above mentioned transformation.
Authors:Liu Wen-Tao, Zeng Shan, Yang Yan-Zhao, Han Jian, Zhu Tao, and Luo Chang-Hong
The i-butyldodecylsulfoxide (BDSO) was synthesized. The extraction of uranium(VI) has been carried out with BDSO in toluene from various HNO3 concentrations. It was found that the distribution ratio increases with increasing nitric acid concentration up to 3.0 mol/l and then decreases. The distribution ratios also increase with increasing extractant concentration. The extracted species appears to be UO2(NO3)2·2BDSO and the equilibrium constant value is 15.2. The influence of temperature, sodium nitrate and oxalate concentrations on the extraction was also investigated, and the thermodynamic functions of the extraction reaction were obtained.