An indexical tense occurring in intensional domains, as in John believed that Mary is pregnant conveys a mismatch between the content reported and the content intuitively attributable to the believer: The actual belief does not seem to involve an indexical reference to the speech time. Current logicosemantic accounts of this mismatch propose a de re interpretation, e.g., there is a state in the real world, of which John believes something. Following Gennari’s (1999a; 2003) account, it is argued that current accounts do not capture multiple instances of belief attributions with indexical tenses and an alternative more flexible account is proposed. Specifically, indexical tenses need not be analyzed de re if the belief reports is considered as an attribution of an implicit belief, rather than an explicit one (Stalnaker 1999). Such attributions are felicitous if there is an inference pragmatically attainable in the common ground that allows the speaker to infer and assert the attributed content. The speaker infers the reported content making extra assumptions normally taken for granted. The account correctly predicts whether a given present or future attitude report is felicitous depending on the availability of the speaker’s inference.
was placed in a microtube containing TSB (Merck, Darmstadt, Germany) (without glucose) at 37 °C.
Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction for genes responsible for biofilm production in S. epidermidis isolate
Authors:Konstantin Tanida, Andreas Hahn, and Hagen Frickmann
-spectrum multiplex real-time PCR assays have been developed and evaluated [ 1 ]. While such assays were formerly applied for screenings or outbreak investigations in settings, where traditional culture-based diagnostic approaches were unfeasible due to logistic
Authors:Raquel Santos, Miguel Grilo, Mónica Araújo, José Luís Monteiro, and Manuela Oliveira
the use and access to antimicrobial compounds are scarce.
This work aimed to characterize the skin and oropharyngeal microbiota of East Timor populations, to identify potentially pathogenic Gram-positive cocci and to determine their
Authors:Ádám Bálint, Miklós Tenk, Zoltán Deim, Thomas Rasmussen, Åse Uttenthal, Attila Cságola, Tamás Tuboly, Attila Farsang, Caroline Fossum, Sirje Timmusk, Mikael Berg, and Sándor Belák
): Quantitation of porcine circovirus type 2 isolated from serum/plasma and tissue samples of healthy pigs and pigs with postweaning multisystemic wasting syndrome using TaqMan-based real-time PCR. J. Virol. Methods
The opening of Haydn’s Symphony No. 39 in G minor is interrupted by two unusually long grand pauses. These brief suspensions of the time continuum reveal Haydn’s search for new narrative strategies for a genre caught up in the tensions between the boisterous concert opener, courtly representation, the bourgeois concert hall and the demands of “connoisseurs.” This use of the
points toward a period of upheaval in the development of symphonic forms in the 18th century. A comparative analysis examining the primarily “punctuated” concept of form in the 18th century in relation to the primarily thematic concept of form in the 19th century and the synthesis of both in the writings of Anton Reicha can show that the process of developing formal functions becomes especially acute in Haydn’s Symphony No. 39, with the two grand pauses playing a key role. Such a reading of Haydn, which seeks to reconcile “historically informed” analysis with emphatic interpretation, illustrates how the spectacular grand pauses in the Symphony No. 39 can suggest a brief suspension of not only the work’s own immanent time but the historical time of 18th-century music history.