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Acta Veterinaria Hungarica
Authors: Rossana Abreu, Cristobalina Rodríguez-Álvarez, María Lecuona, Beatriz Castro-Hernández, Juan Carlos González, Armando Aguirre-Jaime, and Ángeles Arias

. , Haesebrouck , F. and De Vliegher , S. ( 2014 ): Effect, persistence, and virulence of coagulase-negative Staphylococcus species associated with ruminant udder health . J. Dairy Sci. 97 , 5275 – 5293 . doi: 10.3168/jds.2013

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and airway cytokines while increasing the virulence of colonizing bacteria. J Mol Med. 2016; 94: 667–679. 24 Pikaljuk VS, Salanin VV, Zsuravel EA, et al. Structural changes in

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. ( 2015 ): Antimicrobial resistance and virulence traits in Enterococcus strains isolated from dogs and cats . New Microbiol. 38 , 369 – 378 . Jung , W. K. , Shin , S. , Park , Y. K. , Lim , S-K. , Moon , D-C. , Park , K. T. and Park

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Horizontal gene transfer (HGT) plays a key role in the evolution of bacterial pathogens. The exchange of genetic material supplies prokaryotes with several fitness traits enhancing their adaptive response to environmental changes. Pathogenicity islands (PAIs) represent an important and in most cases already immobilized subset of the different vehicles for HGT. Encoding several virulence factors PAIs represent a major contribution to bacterial pathogenicity. Nonetheless, the transfer mechanisms of PAIs still remain elusive. We summarise the currently available data regarding the major ways of genetic mobilisation with a focus on the transfer of the Yersinia High-Pathogenicity Island (HPI).

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[ 11–14 ]. In contrast to adult patients, the patients below 20 years of age usually experienced relatively mild symptoms and had a shorter duration of infection [ 11, 12, 15, 16 ]. Both children and adults were exposed to the same virulence of SARS

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Acta Veterinaria Hungarica
Authors: Akın Kirbas, Fatih Mehmet Kandemir, Demet Celebi, Basak Hanedan, and Mehmet Ozkan Timurkan

of sepsis . Virulence 5 , 154 – 160 . Bonelli , F. , Meucci , V. , Divers , T. J. , Boccardo , A. , Pravettoni , D. , Meylan , M. , Belloli , A. G. and Sgorbini , M

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of VEGFR-2+ and blood vessel density in hippocampus . Neuroscience 152 , 346 – 359 . 10.1016/j.neuroscience.2007.11.049 Dortmans , J. C. , Koch , G. , Rottier , P. J. and Peeters , B. P. ( 2011 ): Virulence of Newcastle disease virus

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can be transferred between bacteria, along with other antibacterial resistance genes and virulence genes ( Leinweber et al., 2018; Pinholt et al., 2019 ). van A plasmids have been characterised in VREfm from wild birds ( Oravcová et al., 2018 ) and

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AC , Yu WH , The human oral microbiome . J Bacteriol 2010 ; 192 : 5002 – 5017 . 10.1128/JB.00542-10 [4] Huang R , Li M , Gregory R . Bacterial interactions in dental biofilm . Virulence 2011 ; 2 : 435 – 444 . 10.4161/viru.2

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pathogen . J Clin Outcomes Manag 2010 ; 17 : 363 – 369 . [2] Jahangiri S , Malekzadegan Y , Motamedifar M , Hadi N . Virulence genes profile and biofilm formation ability of Acinetobacter baumannii strains isolated from inpatients of a

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