Authors:Erin M. Altenburger BA, Esther S. Tung, and Nancy J. Keuthen
Background and aims
Trichotillomania (TTM) often first presents in adolescence, a developmental period marked by vulnerability in body image. To date, no one has studied the relationship between this disorder and body esteem.
49 adolescents with DSM-IV TTM or chronic hair pulling (HP) and 23 control adolescents were administered diagnostic assessments and self-report measures of hair pulling and body esteem.
HP youth vs. controls reported lower levels of body esteem on all Body-Esteem Scale for Adolescents and Adults (BESAA) subscales (appearance, attribution and weight satisfaction). HP contributed to lowered body esteem, independent of comorbid anxiety or depression. As expected, HP youth with vs. without comorbid anxiety or depression reported lowered levels of body esteem. Further, greater HP severity and distress were significantly associated with lower levels of body esteem. HP severity alone but not distress/impairment predicted lower levels of body esteem, independent of comorbid anxiety and depression.
Both hair pulling and comorbid anxiety and depression can independently impact body esteem in adolescent hair pullers.
Authors:Michael W. Firmin, Alisha D. Lee, Ruth L. Firmin, Lauren McCotter Deakin, and Hannah J. Holmes
Background and aims
The aim of the present study was to provide a phenomenological perspective of individuals who actively engage in street-level prostitution and identified a lifestyle addiction associated with their activities.
We interviewed 25 women who were incarcerated in American county jails (at the time of interviews) for prostitution crimes. The transcripts were analyzed for themes that represented the shared consensus of the research participants.
Four negative psychological dynamics related to prostitution. First, participants described accounts of physical and emotional violence which they experienced at the hand of clients and others involved in the lifestyle. Second, interviewees explained an extreme dislike for their actions relating to and involving prostitution. These individuals did not describe themselves as being sexually addicted; sex was means to a desired end. Third, participants described how prostitution's lifestyle had evolved into something which they conceptualized as an addiction. As such, they did not describe themselves as feeling addicted to sex acts — but to lifestyle elements that accompanied prostitution behaviors. Finally, participants believed that freedom from prostitution's lifestyle would require social service assistance in order to overcome their lifestyle addiction.
The results show that, although the prostitutes repeatedly and consistently used the term “addiction” when describing their lifestyles, they did not meet the DSM-IV-TR criteria for addiction. Rather, they shared many of the same psychological constructs as do addicts (e.g., feeling trapped, desiring escape, needing help to change), but they did not meet medical criteria for addictive dependence (e.g., tolerance or withdrawal).
Authors:Liana R. N. Schreiber, Katherine Lust, Brian Odlaug, Katherine L. Derbyshire, and Jon Grant
Background and aims
Hair pulling is a common body focused repetitive behavior. The purpose of this paper is to examine the prevalence of impulse control disorders (as defined in DSM-IV-TR) in a non-treatment seeking sample of hair pullers.
1,717 college students with (n = 44) and without (n = 1673) hair pulling completed a mental health survey. The college students were sent an online survey assessing hair pulling behavior and other impulse control disorders using the Minnesota Impulsive Disorders Interview.
Students with hair pulling were significantly more likely to have a co-occurring impulse control disorder (20.5% vs. 8.9%, p = 0.009, OR = 2.71, CI = 1.28–5.75) and were significantly more likely to meet criteria for compulsive buying, compulsive sexual behavior and intermittent explosive disorder than students without hair pulling. Differences seemed to be moderated by the male gender among students with hair pulling.
Discussion and conclusions
Hair pulling is often comorbid with another impulse control disorder, which suggests that elements of impulsivity may be important in our understanding of hair pulling. Furthermore, gender may moderate impulse control comorbidity in hair pulling disorder.
The aim of this study was to adapt MTT [3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide] colorimetric assay (MCA) (Wang et al., 2010) for determination of lactic acid bacteria cell count. Our study is helpful in developing protocols for measuring the viability of other lactic acid bacteria. We determined the cell concentration range which gives linear regression of CFU (colony forming units) and formazan production. In our experiment three authentic lactic acid bacteria strains were investigated: Lactobacillus rhamnosus VT1, L. plantarum 2142, and L. sakei DSM 2001. As data show beside the strain also the growth medium has influence on the MTT reduction activity, this means that for each special case separate calibration curve has to be prepared. Based on MTT reduction we also developed an improved microtiter plate assay which proved to be reliable for a rapid cell count determination. So our methods are only applicable for estimate cell number with fixed parameters, but under given circumstances they are fast and sensitive methods. With the modified methods we can rapidly measure the dehydrogenase enzyme activity of the lactic acid bacteria cells. With the microplate assay we can measure many conditions and strains at the same time.
Authors:M. Gholipoor, A. Soltani, F. Shekari, and Fb. Shekari
In order to investigate the effects of salinity on water use efficiency (WUE) and its components, i.e. transpiration efficiency (TE), uptake efficiency (UE) and harvest index (HI), in chickpea, four chickpea cultivars were grown in pots containing soils with 0.8 (C=control), 2 (S1) and 3.9 (S2) dSm-1 salinity. At S1, the WUE of all cultivars increased, but subsequently decreased with increasing salinity. The relative contribution of TE to the sum of squares of WUE was relatively higher than UE and HI. Therefore, the TE component had a more crucial improving effect on WUE than the other two WUE components. At the S2 level, UE and HI were lower than in the control. Path analysis revealed that the simultaneous selection of non-stressed cultivars for higher TE and HI, and of salt-stressed cultivars for better TE and UE should be practised to improve WUE under non-stressed and high stress conditions, respectively. With respect to ion contents, the screening of salt-subjected cultivars for higher K+ content in the roots might result in an increase in both the total dry matter (TDM) and WUE of chickpea under stress conditions. Additionally, the selection of non-stressed cultivars on the basis of higher shoot Ca2+ concentration might stimulate the TDM and WUE of chickpea under non-stressed conditions.
Wheat is the second most important crop after rice in India and occupies approximately 28.5 million hectare area. Salinity is one of the major factors reducing plant growth and productivity worldwide, and affects about 7% of world’s total land area. In India about 6.73 million hectare land area is salt affected. The aim of this study was to investigate the morpho- physiological and biochemical response of wheat to temporal salinity (ECiw = 10.0 dSm–1) exposures. Ten wheat genotypes were evaluated in two successive growing seasons (2012–2014), with complete randomized design with three replications under both salinity stress and non-stress conditions. The morpho-physiological and biochemical character measured in this investigation, inhibited under both salt stresses (S1 & S2) conditions but much more significantly inhibited under long-term salinity exposure (S2) than S1 because interrupting the metabolic process of plant, resulting in reduced growth and productivity. According to correlation result, selection of high yield genotypes can be done based on plant height (0.649*), tiller plant–1 (0.808**) and leaf area (0.687*). The multivariate morphophysiological and biochemical parameters should be further used to develop salinity tolerance in wheat breeding improvement programmes.
Authors:Enas Abd El-Hamed, S. Metwally, M. Matar, and N. Yousef
Optimum fertilization management is an important technique to alleviate the adverse effects of salinity stress on plants. A pot experiment was conducted to evaluate the ameliorative role of inorganic phosphorus (P) and organic P sources on wheat grown under salt stress in three soil types deficient in available P. Wheat (Triticum aestivum L. cv. Shakha 93) was grown on alluvial, sandy and calcareous soils at salinity levels of 4, 8 and 12 dS/m of saturated paste extract (ECe) and supplied with a constant rate of 30 mg P2O5/kg soil as superphosphate (SP), cattle manure (CM) and a 1:1 mixture of SP and CM. The results revealed that plants grown on the sandy soil were more susceptible to the adverse effects of salinity than those planted on the alluvial one, especially at zero P. Plants grown on the calcareous soil were moderately affected. The varying soil type caused significant differences in the aboveground biomass and the uptake of N, K, P and Zn. It was obvious that P ameliorated wheat growth under salt stress, and this role was greater under moderate and high salinity. The increases in N, P, K and Zn uptake driven by P application were more conspicuous in the sandy and calcareous soils. The results also indicated that the combined application of inorganic and organic P sources surpassed that of either when applied alone on all soil types and salinity levels.
This study is aimed at assessing family expressed emotions as a predictor of health status of family members living with schizophrenia as well as identifying some characteristics for high or low emotions of family members towards a ‘sick’ member. There were thirty-one families with members suffering from schizophrenia as diagnosed by psychiatrists (using DSM-IV-TR) in government owned hospitals. They were judgmentally sampled with the assistance of social workers. The instrument for gathering data was a validated modified Camberwell Family Interview (CFI) schedule reflecting three major areas: Hostility, Critical comments, and Over-involvement of expressed emotions of family members. The procedure was using trained research assistants from the area to conduct these interactive sessions in their lingua franca. The data generated was subjected to qualitative analysis which shows that out of the 31 families studied, 25 or 80.65% had high expressed emotions while six families or 19.35% had low expressed emotions. However, only five ‘sick’ members had not experienced a relapse since the first treatment and discharge. Seven ‘sick’ members were vagrant of the 25 high expressed emotion families. The study revealed that expressed emotions significantly determine the number of relapses of the member living with schizophrenia; that the gender of a ‘sick’ member does in fact determine the level of expressed emotion from family members. The study also revealed that the poverty of families or shame for families from low and high socio-economic backgrounds respectively are motives for emotions expressed. A model of family therapy was proffered.