Search Results

You are looking at 101 - 110 of 2,559 items for :

  • All content x
Clear All

Az EK 80-as évekbeli környezetvédelmi szabályozási reformja elsősorban arra irányult, hogy a korábbi felfogással szemben a környezetvédelem és a gazdaság bővülése ne ellentétes, hanem egy irányba mutató folyamatok legyenek. Ugyanakkor, míg a környezetvédelmi ipar jelentős exportbevételt jelent a Közösségnek, az Unió általános környezeti állapota az 1999-es jelentés szerint nem javult, az EU polgárai körében pedig a környezeti problémák súlyosságának megítélése jelentősen csökkent. Az EU 5. Akcióprogramja 1992-ben új célokat és elveket fogalmazott meg, valamint hangsúlyozta, hogy a korábbi reaktív szemléletet preventív szemlélettel kell felváltani. A tanulmány röviden vázolja a ma érvényben lévő 6. Akcióprogram főbb célkitűzéseit, majd a környezetvédelem finanszírozási kérdéseire tér át. Rámutat, hogy a GDP-arányos környezetvédelmi kiadások mutatója torz képet fest az adott ország erőfeszítéseiről, továbbá utal az egyes kiadások „környezetvédelmi”-vé minősítésének következetlenségeire is. Magyarország a termelés volumenének alacsonyabb szintje miatt kevésbé szennyezi a környezetet, mint a fejlett ipari országok. A tanulmány mindazonáltal aláhúzza, hogy bár a Bizottság hazánkról alkotott véleményét kezdetben negatívan befolyásolta az önmagunkról adott torz kép, feladataink valóban számosak, kiváltképpen a víz- és levegőminőség, valamint a hulladékkezelés területein. Hangsúlyozza, hogy a hulladéktermelésben és a közlekedésben kialakult kedvezőtlen tendenciák, valamint az elavult technológiák kedvezőtlen környezeti hatásai csak modern technológiával küszöbölhetők ki és ellensúlyozhatók. Összegzésképpen megállapítja, hogy a Bizottság 2001. évi jelentése már jóval kedvezőbb volt a korábbiaknál, és a magyar környezet(védelem)  állapota nem lehet gátja az integrációs folyamatnak.

Restricted access

The author presents the criretia of and prospects for the EU candidate countries joining the European Monetary Union. Enlargement taken as a decided question, she considers EMU accession the “second gate” for candidates. The status of Denmark and the UK are seen as exceptions, the way of which new members may not follow - thus their sooner or later joining the EMU is an obligatory task. The candidates have to meet the convergence criteria, regarding which stress is put on the difference of nominal and real convergence. So, during the at least two years preparing period between EU and EMU accession, strictly supervised “convergence programmes” would be conducted. Financial and economic liberalisation criteria of accession are also expressed.  The author presents the main points of the past three stages of introducing EMU, according to which the question for new members of when to join the EMU can be more precisely answered. She focuses on the balance of interests of members and candidates, the trap of early accession, the case of asymmetric, country-specific shocks and also on the problem of giving up national exchange-rate policies. She concludes for new members that the consideration of the ability of fulfilling the above criteria is indispensable for determining a realistic plan of joining the EMU.

Restricted access

Introduction In this paper we provide an objective ranking of top economics departments in the European Union (EU) and an assessment of how EU departments compare to the top economics departments in the United States

Restricted access

://www.ksh.hu/docs/eng/xstadat/xstadat_infra/e_qli005a.html, accessed 2 September 2016. European Commission ( 2012 ): Fiscal Decentralisation in the EU–Main Characteristics and Implications for Fiscal Outcomes . In: Report on Public Finances in EMU . Brussels : European

Restricted access

Abstract  

Metal ions sorption can be significantly affected by the presence of other sorbates, especially of complexing ligands. In this study, the effect of Se(IV) on Eu(III) sorption onto TiO2 at different pH and Eu(III) concentration was investigated. Se(IV) was found to enhance Eu(III) sorption as a function of Se(IV) concentration. Constant capacitance model was successfully used to interpret the sorption experimental data. The solubility product of Eu2(SeO3)3 at ambient temperature was investigated to highlight the sorption mechanism of ternary sorption system. The pK sp value of Eu2(SeO3)3 was found to be 31.51 ± 0.95.

Restricted access

United States (US) under President Donald Trump's administration and, to a lesser degree, between China and the European Union (EU) have put more attention to non-market components and economic distortions in the Chinese economy, the characteristics which

Restricted access

Abstract  

The151/153Eu isotope effects were investigated for the lignad exchange reaction between Eu(III) ions in the extraction system: [Eu(III),di(2-ethylhexyl) phosphoric acid]org↔[Eu(III), H+A(A=Cl,NO 3 ,SO 4 2− )]aq. It was observed that the heavy isotope153Eu was preferentially fractionated into the organic phase. The following values of the unit separation gains, ε=ln(q), were found: 7.3·10−5 for Cl, 13.0·10−5 for NO 3 , and 9.4·10−5 for SO 4 2− . The direction of the effect was opposite, and its absolute value was about one order of magnitude lower, in respect to the effect observed in the redox exchange, Eu(II)↔Eu(III), in a similar extraction system.

Restricted access

Commission, have recently developed their own dynamic scoring approach, which is now used in the context of the European Semester process to analyse the impact of hypothetical or actual tax reforms in EU member states. This approach is described in more

Open access

Abstract  

Effects of pH, Eu(III) concentration, ionic strength, temperature and humic acid (HA) on Eu(III) sorption to iron oxides were investigated in detail. The sorption of Eu(III) to iron oxides was significantly dependent on pH and weakly dependent on ionic strength, and higher temperature was gainful to Eu(III) sorption. In the presence of HA, Eu(III) sorption was enhanced significantly at low pH; whilst obvious negative effect was observed in higher pH range. Below 12 mg/L HA, HA could obviously enhanced Eu(III) sorption to iron oxides, nevertheless Eu(III) sorption decreased steeply with increasing HA while HA exceeded 12 mg/L. The results were helpful for understanding radionuclides behaviors in natural environment.

Restricted access

Since the reform of the Structural Funds in 1988 resulting from the Single European Act, Spain has been a net beneficiary of structural resources from the EU budget (which includes the Structural Funds and the Cohesion Fund). This situation has changed in the period 2007–2013, when significantly less EU funds will be allocated to Spain. The country will need to adapt to a changeover from being a net beneficiary of EU funds to becoming a net contributor.

Restricted access