The sorption properties of three titanosilicate materials, AM-4, ETS-4, and Na2Ti2O3SiO4 . 2H2O of different framework structure and cation exchange capacity were studied towards the uptake of uranium from aqueous systems. Selectivity factors were estimated by determining batch distribution coefficient (Kd) and uranium removal (mg) per gram of the exchanger as a function of contact time, uranium concentration and batch factor (solution volume to exchanger mass ratio). The difference in their ability to take up uranium was discussed by in terms of their framework structure and the determination of their cation exchange capacity. Comparisons to ETS-10 have been made.
Authors:G. Fetter, E. Ramos, M. Olguin, P. Bosch, T. López, and S. Bulbulian
In this work, hydrotalcites were used to remove131I– from aqueous solutions. It was found that131I– sorption by hydrotalcites depends greatly on the thermal treatment of the solid and does not take place by ion exchange as I– is not capable of removing CO
or other ions in the hydrotalcite. The anions have to be removed from the solid in order to permit I– to be sorbed in the hydrotalcite. The radionuclide content was determined by -spectrometry and X-ray diffraction was used to identify the compounds and to estimate cell parameters.
Authors:Liang Chen, Yan Huang, Lingli Huang, Bin Liu, Gang Wang, and Shaoming Yu
The bentonite/iron oxide magnetic composites were prepared by co-precipitation method, and characterized by Fourier transform
infrared spectroscopy, X-ray powder diffraction and scanning electron microscope. The prepared bentonite/iron oxide magnetic
composites were used as a sorbent for the removal of Co(II) ions from radioactive wastewater. The results demonstrated that
the sorption of Co(II) was strongly dependent on pH and ionic strength at low pH values. The sorption of Co(II) was dominated
by outer-sphere surface complexation or ion exchange at low pH whereas inner-sphere surface complexation was the main sorption
mechanism at high pH. The presence of iron oxide in the composites also contributes to the sorption of Co(II) ions on the
magnetic composites. The experimental data were well described by Langmuir model. The thermodynamic parameters (∆G°, ∆S°, ∆H°) calculated from the temperature-dependent sorption isotherms indicated that the sorption of Co(II) on bentonite/iron oxide
magnetic composites was an endothermic and spontaneous processes.
Gas sorption phenomena can be used to characterise porous solids and dispersed materials. Usually isotherms of nitrogen and noble gases like He, Ar, Kr are measured at low temperatures (77–90 K). Other gases and vapours like water, CO2 and benzene are used at near ambient conditions of pressure and temperature. From the amount of gas adsorbed on the (external or internal) surface characteristic quantities like the specific surface area, specific pore volume and pore spectrum of the material are derived by standardised methods. Experimental techniques most often used are the carrier gas, the volumetric/manometric and the gravimetric method. A comprehensible overview of today's available instruments, their advantages and drawbacks is given.
After mechanochemical treatment of multicomponent mixtures complex fertilizers containing nitrogen, phosphorous, potassium
and sulphur (NPKS) with higher water capacity were obtained. As raw materials some solid wastes and ammonia and potassium
sulfates were used. Due to the different ratio used, new solid phases in the mixtures are formed. New solid phases are confirmed
by the stages and rate of mass changes and also by the thermal effects at different temperature ranges. New phases are also
confirmed by using X-ray diffraction method. On the base of data obtained mechanism of chemical transformations is proposed.
It was found that the kinetics of mechanical activated mixtures decomposition is significantly influenced by the time of treatment
and proceeds in few stages. The results have shown that the soluble nutrients forms ratio and sorption capacity could be controlled
by the initial components ratios and treatment conditions.
The influence of background electrolytes (KCl, NH4Cl, CTABr) in different concentrations on the sorption ability of radiocesium by measuring the distribution coefficient has been studied. Sorption isotherms of cesium for characterization of soil sorption ability were used. Sorption of cesium depends on its concentration and at least three different sorption sites are active in the sorption process. In the case of low cesium concentration, two very selective sites with high distribution coefficients are responsible for the sorption. With increasing cesium concentration in the aqueous phase, distribution coefficient is decreasing. Frayed edge sites of illite in soil and exchangeable potassium are probably responsible for nonlinear isotherms at low cesium concentrations. From sorption isotherms and determination of potassium by activation analysis, it was found that the capacity of very selective sites for different concentrations of background electrolyte was up to 7 mmol·kg–1.
Authors:Shih-Chin Tsai, Kai-Wei Juang, and Yi-Lin Jan
Sorption of radionuclides onto surrounding rocks play an important role in retarding the migration of radionuclides from a radioactive waste repository. The sorption isotherm model is usually used to describe the sorption behaviors and assess the sorption potential of radionuclides on rock. However, most of the studies to investigate the feasibility of isotherm models for the sorption of radionuclides are based on the assumption that the sorption energy is uniform and homogeneously distributed on the sorbent surfaces. In this study, two heterogeneity-based isotherms, Langmuir-Freundlich isotherm model (LF) and generalized-Freundlich isotherm model (GF), were used for the evaluation of the sorption characteristics of cesium on the selected Taiwan tuff and basalt. The sorption experiments in this study were carried out by batch method, and the experimental data were modeled by LF and GF heterogeneity-based isotherm models. The results showed that both of the LF and GF models could fit the data more perfectly than the Langmuir model. The heterogeneity of sorption onto tuff and basalt could be well characterized by the LF and GF models by means of the calculation and plotting of the affinity spectrum. The results showed that the sorption surface of tuff is more heterogeneous and complex than that of basalts.
Surface and bulk sorption of U(VI) onto granite rock with different types of surfaces were carried out and the results were compared for the different surfaces such as crushed granite, machined core granite, and core granite with fractured surface. The sorption behavior of U(VI) dependent on surface types was investigated and discussed for contacting time, pH, constituent minerals, and surface area. Results from the sorption experiments were also compared each other in order to analyze the differences in sorption behaviors of U(VI) and to correlate the surface sorption coefficient Ka and the bulk sorption coefficient Kd. The effect of contact time and pH on the sorption of U(VI) onto fractured surfaces was larger than that onto the machined fresh surfaces but smaller than that onto the crushed surfaces. As expected, it was noticed that the surface sorption coefficients of U(VI) for the natural fracture surfaces were greater than those of the machined fresh surfaces due to the higher content of secondary minerals such as calcite and chlorite which acted as stronger sorbents. It is presumed that there are many micro-fractures or micro-pores available for the uranium sorption on the granite surfaces, even on the machined fresh surfaces, and there can be an intrinsic difference between the surface and the bulk sorption due to the different types of surfaces.
Authors:J. I. Dávila-Rangel, M. Solache-Ríos, and V. E. Badillo-Almaraz
The sorption of cadmium from aqueous solutions was evaluated in three Mexican aluminosilicates (two zeolites and one clay).
The effects of pH and contact time on the sorption process were examined. Cadmium was analyzed by neutron activation analysis
in the exchanged aluminosilicates. The sorption of cadmium by aluminosilicates was the same in the pH range from 4 to 8, considering
the standard deviation. Kinetic studies were carried out and showed a rapid sorption of cadmium in the first 5 hours but the
equilibrium was reached in about 20 hours. The sorption kinetics of cadmium ions was best described by the second-order Ritchie
modified model. The experimental results obtained in different concentrations and at room temperature for both zeolites were
fitted with classical isotherms of Freundlich, Langmuir and Freundlich-Langmuir models. The sorption pattern followed the
Factors that influence the sorption of Cr(VI) and Cr(III) on aluminium hydroxide were investigated. The sorption of chromates decreases as the pH of the suspension increases. The mechanism of CrO
sorption was interpreted in terms of reactions between chromates and –OH and/or H2O groups at the hydroxide/liquid interface. It has been shown that chromates are more tightly sorbed on aluminium hydroxide compared to other anions, e.g. chlorides. On the other hand, specifically absorbed anions, such as molybdates, compete strongly with chromates for the sorption sites. The sorption of chromium(III) increases with the pH of the suspension. Also, the sorption of chromium(III) is suppressed in the presence of citrate ions. The best conditions for the fixation of Cr(VI) and Cr(III) by aluminium hydroxide are presented.