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A honeybee informs her nestmates of the location of a flower by doing a waggle dance. The waggle dance encodes both the direction of and distance to the flower from the hive. To reveal how the waggle dance benefits the colony, we created a Markov model of bee foraging behavior and performed simulation experiments by incorporating the biological parameters that we obtained from our own observations of real bees as well as from the literature. When two feeders were each placed 400 m away from the hive in different directions, a virtual colony in which honeybees danced and correctly transferred information (a normal, real bee colony) made significantly greater numbers of successful visits to the feeders compared to a colony with inaccurate information transfer. Howerer, when five feeders were each located 400 m from the hive, the inaccurate information transfer colony performed better than the normal colony. These results suggest that dancing’s ability to communicate accurate information depends on the number of feeders. Furthermore, because non-dancing colonies always made significantly fewer visits than those two colonies, we concluded that dancing behavior is beneficial for hives’ ability to visit food sources.

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A környezet büntetőjogi védelmének komoly hagyományai vannak a magyar anyagi büntetőjogban. A környezetet nem károsító termelés nincs, vagy a természeti folyamatok sok területén ma még csak lehetőség, ezért nehéz megindokolni a környezeti bűncselekmények miatt a büntetés jogalapját.A büntetőjog akkor tud igazán hatékonyan működni, ha az egyéb jogágak (polgári jog, közigazgatási jog stb.) védelmi rendszereire és eszközeire komoly anyagi forrásokat biztosítunk. A tettesek megbüntetése nem jelent megoldást a környezeti ártalmakra, s megfontolandó, hogy a reparatív szemlélet (pl. in integrum restitutio) kapjon prioritást a jogkövetkezmények alkalmazásánál.A környezet büntetőjogi védelme akkor fokozható, ha a környezetvédelmi normákat az állam betartatja. A környezeti jogszabályok részben virtuális joganyagként értelmezhetők a végrehajtási deficit jelensége miatt.

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In the following article, Jarmo Valkola investigates the originality of the Hungarian director Béla Tarr’s filmmaking practice. Tarr represents European pictorialism that is motivated by the commitment to develop and increase the function and effectiveness of images, sounds and performances that aesthetically formulate, translate and change the effects of contemporary cinema to higher dimensions and qualities of art. Tarr emphasises the selective and manipulative role of the camera in orchestrating his narrative concerns. The significance of the form comes forward, and the photographic dimension of the narrative creates static and momentarily captured intensities. Like Jancsó before him, Tarr also invests the narrative with plan-sequences. Some of them can be very long, involving continuous and intricate camera movements, like simultaneous track-tilt-pans, compounded by the ‘virtual’ movement of the omnipresent camera. Tarr’s filmic iconography sets standards for pictorial filmmaking in the sense of an increasingly personal touch of dramatics defining and distilling a cinematic language that is endless in its search for the almost silent colloquy between the artist’s visions and aspirations. Sátántangó, Werckmeister Harmonies, The Man from London, and The Turin Horse are the films referred in this article.

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The social structure of nomadic societies is best reflected in that of organised nomadic empires. The present article explores the closely interrelated social, economic and military activities in advanced nomadic societies. The changing status and sometimes significantly different roles of newly conquered tribes are elucidated to provide a true picture of the organising principles of the relationship between the conquerors and the conquered population. Myths of origin, religious elements, real or virtual borders and the practice of exogamy all played a decisive role in creating social stability and an efficiently functioning order on the steppe. Furthermore, the term half-nomad is investigated to clarify its precise meaning, clearly contrasting it with some widespread misunderstandings. It is suggested that the use of this term should be avoided in contexts when it refers to the mixture of livestock-breeding and pasture-life. In addition, the exact meaning of the term clan and the roles of women in nomadic societies are analysed with various mythical and historical examples. The author suggests that the general concepts of nomadic societies could and should be applied to the history of the Magyars.

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Abstract  

It has been demonstrated that pixel-by pixel processing of series of autoradiography images for revealing the dynamics of decay of the induced radionuclides is an efficient approach for mapping of radionuclides in the sample in activation autoradiography. Concepts of virtual scanner and corresponding software for linearization of dependence of optical density on scanner response (luminosity) have been introduced. The concept provides unification of the subsequent processing of autoradiograms, irrespective of the method as to how the digital image has been obtained. Algorithms and the software for estimation of decay parameters of a radionuclide mixture for each pixel using a series of coaxially positioned images have been developed. The software is able generate a set of the derivative meta-images allowing a conclusion to be made about the presence of the inclusions in question. To increase the reliability of radionuclide mapping it is suggested to use analysis of distribution of half-life values estimated for pixels of image zone(s) pointed by a special mask.

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With continuing proliferation of human influences on landscapes, there is mounting incentive to undertake quantification of relationships between spatial patterns of human populations and vegetation. In considering such quantification, it is apparent that investigations must be conducted at different scales and in a comparative manner across regions. At the broader scales it becomes necessary to utilize remote sensing of vegetation for comparative studies against map referenced census data. This paper explores such an approach for the urbanized area in the Tokyo vicinity. Vegetation is represented by the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) as determined from data acquired by the thematic mapper (TM) sensor of the Landsat satellite. Sparseness of vegetation is analyzed in relation to density of human residence, first by regression analysis involving stratified distance zones and then by the recent echelon approach for characterization of surfaces. Echelons reveal structural organization of surfaces in an objective and explicit manner. The virtual surface determined by census data collected on a grid is shown to have structural correspondence with the surface representing vegetation greenness as reflected in magnitude of NDVI values computed from red and infrared bands of image data.

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In 1937 and 1938, a group of high-relief and round statues were uncovered during the joint expedition of the American School of Oriental Research in Jerusalem and the Department of Antiquities in Palestine at the Khirbet et-Tannur Temple, located in Jordan. This expedition was headed by Nelson Glueck (Figs 1, 2). The statues uncovered are important in that they offer considerable information about Nabataean art and religion. This paper concentrates on one of the high-relief statues, called the Atargatis Panel by its excavator, Glueck. It was chosen as a case study for its availability in Amman, Jordan. The other Atargatis statues found at the site are now in the Cincinnati Art Museum in the United States of America. This paper also examines the Nabataean religious beliefs concerning Atargatis and her fertility cult, in addition to the art style of the statue. Furthermore, the digital 3D imaging documentation of the Atargatis statue at The Jordan Museum is presented. Dense image matching algorithms presented a flexible, cost-effective approach for this important work. These images not only provide geometric information but also show the surface textures of the depicted objects. This is especially important for the production of virtual 3D models used as a tool for documentary, educational and promotional purposes.

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Poletta C, Bartell T, Shehada S: Applications of the posterior thigh flap. Ann Plast Surg 1993; 30: 41–47 10 Linping Z, Pravin KP, Mimis C: Application of virtual surgical

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. Thiers , B. ( 2019 ): Index Herbariorum: A global directory of public herbaria and associated staff . New York Botanical Garden's Virtual Herbarium . – http://sweetgum.nybg.org/ih/

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York Botanical Garden’s Virtual Herbarium . - http://sweetgum.nybg.org/ih/ Thiers B Index Herbariorum: A global directory of public herbaria and

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