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Abstract  

Leaf samples of two varieties of Cajanus cajan Millsp were analysed by instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA). The samples were taken from plants grown under two fertilizer dose conditions, making use of the following microminerals: Fe, Mn, Mo and Zn, which were applied individually to the soil. The samples were collected in two cutting times. We verify the variation in the absorption of each element, considering its availability in the soil.

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Abstract  

We investigated the distribution of aquatic plants and the absorption of radionuclides by them in the brackish Lake Obuchi, Japan, which is bordered by nuclear fuel cycle facilities. We studied 5 species of submerged plants: Zannichellia palustris, Ruppia maritima, Potamogeton pectinatus, Zostera japonica, and Z. marina. The plants contained many elements, including radionuclides. The concentrations of 238U, 137Cs, and 90Sr in Z. marina were 11.3-12.4, 0.000-0.144, and 0.151-0.202 Bq.kg-1 dw, respectively. Those in Z. japonica were 5.2-8.8, 0.000-0.267, and 0.081-0.175 Bq.kg-1 dw, respectively. The concentrations of these radionuclides in the plants tended to be higher in higher-salinity regions than in lower-salinity regions of the lake. We found a close relationship between photosynthetic activity and the absorption of stable Sr by plants in the laboratory. Salinity, illumination, and water temperature influenced the photosynthetic activity of the plants and the consequent absorption of elements.

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Abstract  

Multielemental instrumental neutron activation (INAA), inductively coupled plasmaatomic emission spectrometric (ICP-AES) and atomic absorption spectrophotometric (AAS) analyses are utilized for the determination of Ag, Al, As, Au, Ba, Be, Br, Ca, Cd, Ce, Cl, Co, Cr, Cu, Eu, Fe, Ga, Hf, K, La, Li, Lu, Mg, Mn, Na, Nb, Ni, P. Pb, Sb, Sc, Se, Sm, Sn, Sr, Ta, Th, Ti, U, V, W and Zn in sugar cane plant, raw juice, juice in different stages, syrup, deposits, molasses, A, B and C sugar, refinery 1 and 2 sugar, and in soil samples picked up from the immediate vicinity of the cane plant roots at surface, 30 and 60 cm depth.

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Abstract  

Activated carbons (AC) have been long recognized as prominent absorbents in industries and feature numerous applications in preventing or absorbing the harmful gases and liquids and could be employed for filtration and remediation or even reutilization of chemicals. In order to investigate the capacity of AC in reducing the absorption of heavy metals (HM) including lead (Pb) and cadmium (Cd) and dual complex (Pb × Cd) by spinach, a factorial experiment in a completely randomized design with three replications on a pot trial was conducted. Three factors including five levels of AC 0, 5000, 10000, 15000, 20000 mg/kg soil, one concentration level of Pb 4,000 mg/kg soil and one concentration level of cadmium Cd 8 mg/kg soil were tested. The index of heavy metal concentration was calculated in leaf, stem and root and their corresponding dry weights. Results illustrated that in contaminated soils, plants with AC exhibited a superior reduction of absorption of HM vis-à-vis the plants without AC. The foremost result regarding the impact of AC on reducing the concentration of Pb and Cd was observed in 20,000 level of AC. This reveals that AC declined the soil contamination and lessened the accumulation of HM into the shoots and roots. Results suggest that the application of AC may be an eligible solution for decreasing the translocation of HM into the plants.

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Abstract  

Dilute aqueous solutions of cytosine were irradiated with60Co -rays under N2O saturated conditions at different pH and in the presence of Cu(II) ions at neutral pH. The base degradation decreased from neutral to acidic and basic conditions. In the presence of metal ions at neutral pH conditions there was a significant increase in the base degradation compared to that in the absence of metal ions under similar conditions. From the difference absorption spectra and fluorescence behavior of the irradiated solutions it was observed that the major radiolytic products of cytosine under different conditions are cytosine glycols, 5-hydroxycytosine, hydroxy-hydrocytosine and cytosine dimers. The yields of dimers is maximum in neutral conditions and it decreased from basic to acidic conditions. However, in the presence of Cu(II) ions formation of cytosine dimers is completely restricted and there is an increase in the yields of cytosine glycol, hydroxy-hydrocytosine and 5-hydroxycytosine. From the post-radiolytic changes in absorption and fluorescence behavior of irradiated solutions, it is revealed that some of the radiolytic products, namely cytosine glycol and hydroxy-hydrocytosine decompose to 5-hydroxycytosine and cytosine, respectively.

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Abstract  

The method of incorporating in-situ pre-concentration technique via multiple injections followed by electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry (ETAAS) is described for the direct determination of lead at sub-ppb levels in secondary coolants of pressurized water reactor (PWR). Prior to ETAAS measurement, water samples were concentrated by means of multiple injections (9×90 ml) and evaporation in a pyrocoated graphite tube. Optimization of the in-situ pre-concentration via multiple injections with ETAAS analysis was investigated. The feasibility of the proposed method was tested for direct determination of lead in secondary coolants of pressurized water reactor. A SRM 1643c certified reference water sample has been used for quality control. The result are in good agreement with the certified value. By the use of 0.81 ml sample volume 0.012 ppb detection limit was obtained.

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Abstract  

In this study, the total thermal neutron macroscopic and microscopic cross sections of V, Co, Cu, In, Dy and Au were measured using neutron self-absorption properties. Pure foils of these elements with various thicknesses were irradiated using a 5 Ci238Pu–Be source. After the irradiation, the gamma-spectra of their radionuclides were recorded by an HpGe detector. The gamma-photopeak areas of interest were determined by evaluating the gamma-spectra obtained from the foils. They were plotted as a function of foil thickness for each element. Then a non-linear least-squares fitting method was applied to the functions, and the total thermal neutron macroscopic and microscopic cross sections of V, Co, Cu, In, Dy and Au were obtained.

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Abstract  

In a study of the atmospheric deposition of trace elements in different parts of Norway, samples of the mossHylocomium Splendens were analyzed with respect to 28 elements. The determination of Cu, Zn, Cd, and Pb was carried out by atomic absorption spectrophotometry, while 24 additional elements were determined by instrumental neutron activation analysis. In samples from southernmost Norway, a substantially higher concentration was found for elements such as Pb, Sb, V, Cr, Cu, Zn, As, Se, Mo, Ag, and Cd than in samples from places located in the more northerly parts of the country. The results indicate that sources which are to the south and south-west of Scandinavia, contribute significantly to heavy metal deposition in Norway.

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Abstract  

Direct determination of trace metals at extremely low levels in high purity water is described. The method incorporates an in situ preconcentration technique in the graphite furnace of the atomic absorption spectrometer. The in situ preconcentration process involves multiple injections and evaporation in apyrocoated graphite tube. The feasibility of the proposed method of multiple injections (up to 9×90 l) prior to analysis has been investigated. A SLRS-2 certified water sample has been used for quality control, and the results are in good agreement with the certified value and with determination by standard addition method. Typically, up to 0.8 ml of sample could be analyzed. Due to the relatively large sample volume, the detection limits for the elements of interest are in the range of 3–9 ng/l.

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Abstract  

An on-line solid phase micro-column extraction and determination system for trace Cd and Pb in nuclear fuel grade uranium compounds was established. The preconcentration of trace elements Cd and Pb from uranium compounds was achieved by adsorbing Cd and Pb on CL-7301 resin in hydroiodic acid media, while the uranyl ion passed through. The method coupled with flame atomic absorption spectrometry (FAAS) was applied to analysis trace Cd and Pb in real samples. The preconcentration factors obtained by this method were 320 and 180 each for Cd and Pb, respectively. Under the optimized conditions, the detection limits corresponding to three times the standard deviation of the blank were found to be 0.13 ng·mL−1 and 0.37 ng·mL−1 for Cd and Pb, respectively. The relative standard deviation (RSD) and the recoveries of standard addition (spiked with 1–5 ng of Cd and Pb) were of <5% (n = 10) and 96.2%–102.3%, respectively. Precision was also evaluated and found to be ≤4.3% (N = 11). The proposed method was successfully used for the determination of trace Cd and Pb in commercially available uranium compounds (e.g., uranyl acetate and triuranium octoxide).

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