Authors:Nadja Fodor, S. K. Dube, I. Fodor, E. Horváth, Edith Nagy, V. N. Vakharia, and Altancsimeg Rencendorsh
Direct DNA inoculations were used to determine the efficacy of gene immunisation of chickens to elicit protective immune responses against infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV). Thevp2 gene of IBDV strains GP40 and D78, and thevp2-vp4-vp3 encoding segment of strain D78 were cloned in an expression vector which consisted of human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) immediate early enhancer and promoter, adenovirus tripartite leader sequences and SV40 polyadenylation signal. For purification of vaccine-quality plasmid DNA fromE. coli, an effective method was developed. Chickens were vaccinated by inoculation of DNA by two routes (intramuscular and intraperitoneal). Two weeks later, chickens were boosted with DNA, and at 2 weeks post-boost, they were challenged with virulent IBDV strain. Low to undetectable levels of IBDV-specific antibodies and no protection were observed with DNA encoding VP2. However, plasmids encoding VP2-VP4-VP3 induced IBDV-specific antibodies and protection in the chickens. DNA immunisation opens a new approach to the development of gene vaccines for chickens against infectious diseases.
Authors:P. Belon, V. Elia, L. Elia, M. Montanino, E. Napoli, and M. Niccoli
We systematically analysed the experimental data related to the specific conductivities and heats in excess of several serially
diluted and agitated solutions (SDA for short). For all of the analysed samples, we found that both the excess conductivity,
χE (μS cm−1), and excess heat, QmixE (J kg−1), varied with the age of the sample (up to 2 years of ageing). Furthermore, we found that after a certain period of ageing,
small volume samples exhibited a much higher excess than large volume ones. The results we report in this paper are the product
of a systematic study, during which we operated on known and constant volumes across the life of the samples. The incidence
of volume on χE and QmixE turned out to be overwhelming when compared with that of time. The temporal evolution of the smaller samples was found significantly
higher than that of the larger volume ones. A careful numerical analysis of the results uncovered an extraordinary and unexpected
correlation, of exponential kind, between the excess parameters and the volume of the solution in the container. As for the
temporal evolution of these systems, we found that the measured excess heats and conductivity often reach a maximum. That
led us to the conclusion that the temporal evolution of the physico-chemical parameters is not caused by the slow process
of equilibrium attainment; on the contrary, these systems are far from equilibrium systems, dissipative structures, whose
experimental behaviour is certainly due to the variation of the super-molecular structure of the solvent, water. The agitation
phase during the preparation could be the trigger for the formation of dissipative structures and the emergence of the novel
behaviour. We put forth a simple rationalizing hypothesis, based on the general idea of water as an auto-organizing system
that, when elicited by even small perturbations, can enter a far from equilibrium state, sustained by the dissipation of the
electromagnetic energy coming from the environment. (Dissipative Structures).
This paper examines the status of Hungarian dative noun phrases interpreted as external possessors of a sister constituent. It challenges the widely accepted view put forth by Szabolcsi (1983; 1992, etc.) that external possessors are uniformly assigned a theta role by the possessum, and they are uniformly raised from its maximal projection via A-bar movement. It argues instead that external possessors can also be base-generated outside the projection of the possessum, binding its internal possessor, and can receive an ‘affected’ theta role from the verb. The paper distinguishes three different types of external possession, showing that they have different licensing conditions, and different agreement properties. (i) The external possessor can be generated externally, and be assigned an ‘affected’ theta role by the verb. The referential identity of the dative marked affected participant and the pro-dropped internal possessor is due to a binding relation between them. (ii) The external possessor can be licensed by information structure/logical structure: a case marked possessor can assume a topic, focus, or quantifier role on its own, and can be raised into the corresponding A-bar position independently, without its possessum. (iii) The external possessor can also be licensed by the semantic incorporation of its possessum. External possessors binding a pro and external possessors binding a trace in the projection of the possessum elicit different agreement on the possessum. The choice of agreement in the different types of external possession constructions has been tested with 40 native speakers, and the results have been used as evidence in their structural analyses.
Because of similar pathophysiologic changes, oleic acid (OA)-induced pulmonary edema has been well established as an experimental model of certain types of ARDS. Data in the literature indicate changes mostly in global pulmonary mechanical parameters (lung resistance and compliance) during permeability-type edema. Therefore, we designed this study (1) to separate the OA-induced mechanical responses into airway and parenchymal components, and (2) to examine the relationship between the mechanical parameters and the degree of edema. Anaesthetized, paralyzed, mechanically ventilated rats were given iv. OA in doses of 0 (C n=9), 0.05 (OA0.05 n=8), 0.1 (OA0.1 n=10) and 0.3 (OA0.3 n=5) ml/kg. Respiratory system impedance was measured with a wave-tube low-frequency forced oscillation technique, and a model fitting was used to estimate airway (Raw) and lung tissue parameters (G, parenchymal damping; H, elastance). Pulmonary edema was quantified by gravimetric analysis (WW/DW, wet-to-dry weight ratio). In the OAL0.05 group, transient, but significant increase in Raw, only slight increase in H, and no response in G was observed. Different responses were obtained in OA0.1: significant Raw, G, and H values in survivors; rapid and significantly higher responses in all three parameters in non-survivors. Extremely large parameter values were measured in OA0.3. We found that OA caused dose-related increases in WW, DW and WW/DW. Highly significant correlations were found between the degree of edema and G or H, but not Raw. This study demonstrates that low dose of OA had only transient lung mechanical effects; however, it resulted in mild edema. The higher dose elicited significant airway and tissue changes (smaller responses in survivors than in non-survivors), and severe edema. The strong correlation between lung tissue parameters and the degree of edema suggests that the OA-induced acute lung injury is manifested primarily in the alterations in parenchymal mechanics.
Authors:Éva Ivanics, P. Rudas, G. Sályi, and R. Glávits
In a goose flock consisting of 2300 birds of 6 months of age severe goitre was diagnosed. To the best of our knowledge this is the first report of naturally occurring goitre in geese, which is not related to the feeding of rapeseed meal. The major pathological findings included retarded growth and plumage development, significantly (300%) increased relative thyroid weight, fat accumulation in the mesenteric and abdominal region, and lipid infiltration of liver and kidney cells. Subsequent hormone analysis showed undetectable thyroxine (T4) levels and a dramatic drop in triiodothyronine (T3) plasma levels of the diseased geese. Thy- roidal histology displayed the typical signs of struma parenchymatosa. In order to get more information about the possible causes of the goitre, 10 geese from the affected farm were transferred into the laboratories of the Central Veterinary Institute. The geese were allotted into two groups. Group I received iodine supplementation for 55 days, while the other group served as sick control (Group S). Iodine treatment caused a dramatic improvement in the birds clinical condition except in plumage growth in Group I, while the clinical and main pathological signs of goitre remained unchanged or worsened in the untreated Group S. Contrary to this, the serum levels of thyroid hormones and responsiveness to thyrotropin releasing hormone (TRH) improved not only in Group I but also in Group S. Almost euthyroid biochemical parameters were found after 55 days of iodine treatment in Group I and, surprisingly, a considerable improvement (especially in serum T3 levels) occurred also in Group S. These findings confirm the diagnosis of goitre but also call attention to the fact that iodine deficiency was not the only factor eliciting the disorder. The underlying possible goitrogenic substance could not be traced down.
Endothelin elicits long-lasting vasoconstriction in the coronary bed. This remarkable spastic response raises the question whether or not the metabolic adaptive mechanisms of the coronaries are activated under endothelin effect. The role of the compensatory mediators adenosine and inosine was investigated before and after intracoronary (ic.) administration of endothelin-1 (ET-1, 1.0 nmol) using 1-min reactive hyperemia (RH) tests on in situ dog hearts (n=15) with or without blocking the ATP-sensitive potassium (K +ATP) channels by glibenclamide (GLIB, 1.0 mmol min –1, ic.). The release of adenosine and inosine via the coronary sinus was measured by HPLC during the first minute of RH. Endothelin-1 reduced baseline coronary blood flow (CBF) and RH response (hyperemic excess flow (EF) control vs. ET-1: 81.7±13.6 vs. 43.4±10.9 ml, P<0.01), while it increased the net nucleoside release (adenosine, control vs. ET-1: 58.9±20.4 vs. 113.7±39.4 nmol, P<0.05; inosine: 242.1±81.8 vs. 786.9±190.8 nmol, P<0.05). GLIB treatment alone did not change baseline CBF but also reduced RH significantly and increased nucleoside release (EF control vs. GLIB: 72.1±11.7 vs. 31.9±5.5 ml, P<0.01; adenosine: 18.8±4.6 vs. 63.0±24.8 nmol, P<0.05; inosine: 113.0±37.2 vs. 328.2±127.5 nmol, P<0.05). Endothelin-1 on GLIB-treated coronaries further diminished RH and increased nucleoside release (EF: 21.5±8.0 ml, P<0.05 vs. GLIB; adenosine: 75.3±28.1 nmol, NS; inosine: 801.9±196.6 nmol, P<0.05 vs. GLIB). The data show that ET-1 reduces metabolic adaptive capacity of the coronaries, and this phenomenon is due to decreased vascular responsiveness and not to the blockade of ischemic mediator release from the myocardium. The coronary effect of ET-1 may partially be dependent on K +ATP channels. _;
Az „őrült zseni” sztereotípiája kultúránkban időről időre felbukkan nemcsak a közgondolkodásban, hanem művészeti alkotások és életrajzi művek témájaként is. Híres egyéniségek történetei töltik el félelemmel vegyes vonzalommal az embereket, ahogy az eminens talentum mellett feltűnik a lelki szenvedés, a másság és a destruktivitás, amely könnyen átlép a józan ésszel megérthető és megmagyarázható határán. Az utóbbi évtizedben a kreativitás és a pszichopatológia kapcsolatának kutatásában jelentős szemléletváltás következett be: a ritka, diagnosztikus címkékkel felruházott esetek boncolgatása helyett a „tünetek” populációs leírása került előtérbe a szkizotípiás, az affektív vagy az autisztikus vonások tekintetében. Ezek a jelenségek a populációban széles skálán mozognak, egymással átfedést mutatva. A kreatív teljesítmény prediktorainak egyre összetettebb statisztikai feltérképezésén túl az új megközelítés lehetővé teszi azt is, hogy mind a funkcionális agyi lokalizáció, mind a genetikai háttér megértésének tekintetében előrelépés történjen.
Multi-band remotely sensed image data contain information on landscape pattern and temporal changes that are greatly underutilized in this technological era when monitoring of disturbance and ecological dynamics is increasingly important to address questions regarding sustainability of ecosystem health and climate change. Among the reasons for this loss of analytical opportunity are the inadequacy of methods for systematic extraction of pattern elements, incongruity between information paradigms for remote sensing and geographic information systems (GIS), and the sheer volume of remotely sensed image data when acquired regularly over time. Long-term cooperative landscape ecological investigations concerning habitat and change detection in conjunction with remote sensing and GIS have yielded a pattern-based approach to progressively segmenting images (PSI) that culminates in a doubly segmented image representation by sets of approximating signal vectors that serve as parsimonious proxies for pixel vectors. The coarser level of segmentation is entirely congruent with raster map structures for GIS, and yet mimics the appearance of an image display by colorization using information on typical spectral properties of segments contained in attribute tables. The components of the coarser representation as spatial segments constitute explicit elements of pattern at several levels. The explicit nature of these pattern elements enables spatial pattern matching for change detection that resolves difficulties with phenological variability and continuity of sensor configurations over time. Conversion to segmented representation can be applied to multi-temporal change indices so as to elicit longer-term patterns of change from temporal sequences of images. The finer level of segmentation for spectral detail enables restoration of image bands in the manner of a low-pass filter for analysis according to the usual paradigms of remote sensing. Mapping of the residuals for the finer detail of image approximation provides further information on exceptional features of landscape ecological pattern.
Authors:B. Badu-Apraku, M. Fakorede, A. Menkir, A. Kamara, and S. Dapaah
Full-sib families derived from Pool 16 DT, a tropical maize (
L.) population, were evaluated in the 1995/96 and 1997/98 dry seasons, using two sites each season in Côte d’Ivoire. In all sites, the crop was irrigated from planting to about 2 weeks before anthesis, irrigation was discontinued thereafter for the rest of the season in one site in 1995 and both sites in 1997. Irrigation was continued till maturity in the second site in 1995. The means and ranges showed that the induced stress environments produced significantly lower grain yield, fewer ears per plant (EPP) and lower grain moisture percentage than the non-stressed site. The coefficients of variation (CVs) associated with the stressed environment were consistently larger than those associated with the non-stressed environment. Similarly, the coefficients of determination (R
) values were generally higher for the non-stressed than the stressed site. Only 7 families were common to the highest-yielding 20 % of the 90 families in each evaluation environment in 1995 and the 7 families were ranked differently in the stressed relative to the non-stressed environments. EPP, plant height (PHT) and ear height (EHT) had consistent positive correlation with grain yield; correlations of days to anthesis and silking date with yield were negative. The induced stress did not properly elicit the true differences among families and may, therefore, need to be modified. We are presently experimenting with a slight modification of the method by irrigating whenever the maize plants start showing signs of temporary wilting such as leaf rolling early in the day.
Endurance training aiming at eliciting further increase of physical performance of competitive athletes demands serious time and intensity constraints. In addition, very high intensity training could lead to âεœover-loadingâε□ frequently associated with increased concentration of plasma lactate after maximum intensity exercise and proteinuria. We hypothesized that a newly available complex dietary (CD) supplement - by providing the necessary substances and cofactors for increased tissue metabolism - would reduce the increase in plasma lactate concentration and proteinuria after maximum intensity exercise in swimmers undergoing high intensity training and exercise (70 km/week, for 6 weeks) period. Subjects involved in the investigation were junior swimmers (n = 10). Data were collected four times during the third macrocycle of training; 1 st: before, 2 nd: after 10 days and 3 rd: 14 days after withdrawal of CD-supplement, whereas 4 th: after 10 days of placebo treatment. The study was a double-blinded random controlled investigation. In the first period, plasma lactate concentration was 8.4Ã±2.1 mmol/l, whereas protein level in the urine was 8.9Ã±5.8 mg/l. After use of CD-supplement plasma lactate concentration significantly decreased to 5.5Ã±1.9 mmol/l and proteinuria decreased to 1.3Ã±2.1 mg/l (p<0.05). Importantly, the intensity and the volume of the training did not change during the observation period. Thus, use of CD-supplement significantly reduced the increase in plasma lactate and proteinuria after maximum intensity exercise in athletes (swimmers) undergoing high endurance training despite maintained training load. We propose that the special components of CD-supplement support the mechanisms responsible for lactate elimination and reduction of protein catabolism and/or increase of protein reabsorption. These adaptations are likely to allow the athletes to undergo higher intensity training resulting in greater performance.