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lead to change of functional properties of the system. As a result of incorporating the multiple water-in-oil-in-water emulsions of nanosized lipids, food spreadability and stability are improved. A low-fat mayonnaise formulation for example provides a

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. Emulsions stabilised solely by colloidal particles . Adv. Colloid Interface Sci . 2003 , 100 -102, 503. 12. Coulson , J. M. ; Richardson , J. F. ; Backhurst , J. R. ; Harker , J. H

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in bulk oils versus emulsions. J. Agric. Fd Chem ., 42 , 1054–1059. German J.B. Interfacial phenomena in the evaluation of antioxidants in bulk oils versus emulsions

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): Antioxidant activity of a rosemary extract and its constituents, carnosic acid, carnosol, and rosmarinic acid, in bulk oil and oil-in-water emulsion. J. agric. Fd Chem. , 44, 131-135. Antioxidant activity of a rosemary extract and

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Acta Alimentaria
Authors: Zs. Kiss, Sz. Kertész, C. Hodúr, G. Keszthelyi-Szabó, and Zs. László

8778 8784 Hu , B. & Scott , K. (2008): Microfiltration of water in oil emulsions and evaluation of fouling mechanism. Chem. Eng. J. , 136 , 210

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15 Prasad, R., Sharma, S. N., Singh, S., Saxena, V. S. 2001: Pusa neem emulsion as an ecofriendly coating agent for urea quality and efficiency. Fertilizer News , 46 , 73

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Abstract

Objective

The present study was conducted to assess the effects of the GnRH agonist (alarelin) on the expression of GnRHR, FSHR and LHR mRNAs in the pituitary gland and uterine development in female mice.

Methods

Sixty pre-estrus female mice were randomly assigned to 4 groups (n = 15). The mice in experiment group 1 (EG-1), experiment group 2 (EG-2), and experiment group 3 (EG-3) were subcutaneously injected with 0.375 μg/kg, 0.75 μg/kg and 1.5 μg/kg alarelin antigen emulsion, respectively, once a day during 7 consecutive days to enhance immune response. Mice in the control group (CG) were injected with 0.l ml solvent once a day on 7 consecutive days. The samples of blood, pituitary and uterine horns were collected aseptically at day 21 from each mouse. Fluorescence quantitative RT-PCR was implemented to detect gene expression of GnRHR, FSHR and LHR in the pituitary glands. ELISA was used to measure the serum LH and FSH concentrations. The uterine slices were observed under an optical microscope; the images were measured using Motic software.

Results

(1) Compared to CG, the uterine weights in EG-1, EG-2 and EG-3 decreased by 34.43%, 54.10% and 55.74% (P < 0.05), respectively. (2) Uterine wall thickness in EG-1, EG-2 and EG-3 reduced by 8.64%, 8.04% and 14.03% (P < 0.05), respectively. Endometrial epithelium thickness in EG-1, EG-2 and EG-3 reduced by 29.43%, 28.55% and 38.49%, respectively, when compared with that of CG. (3) The 2−ΔΔCt values of GnRHR, FSHR and LHR mRNAs in the pituitary gland of EG-1 (P < 0.05), EG-2 (P < 0.01) and EG-3 (P < 0.01) were lower than that of CG. The uterine cavity in EG-1 slightly decreased. (4) Serum FSH concentrations in EG-1, EG-2 (P < 0.05) and EG-3 (P < 0.01) increased, with the highest increment in EG-3 (79.80%). Serum LH concentrations in the three EGs decreased (P < 0.05). (5) The uterine cavities and glandular lumen volumes in EG-2 and EG-3 narrowed, and the uterine wall became thinner obviously. The number of uterine glands in EG-3 decreased.

Conclusion

Alarelin antigen active immunization can suppress the expression of GnRHR, FSHR and LHR mRNAs in the pituitary gland, impact the secretion of FSH and LH, and obviously inhibit uterine growth and development, especially endometrial epithelial cells (EEC) and uterine gland. The effects were dose dependent.

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alcohol oxidation with hydrogen peroxide. The catalyst has temperature-responsive behavior in most organic solvents during the reaction. But an emulsion was formed when the oxidation was carried out in water. Catalysis in emulsion systems has attracted

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Acta Alimentaria
Authors: J. Dziuba, P. Minkiewicz, M. Darewicz, H. Mioduszewska, and Z. Dziuba

Darewicz, M., Dziuba, J., Caessens, P. W. J. R. & Gruppen, H. (2000): Dephosphorylation-induced structural changes in β-casein and its amphiphilic fragment in relation to emulsion properties. Biochimie , 82 , 191

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xanthium on the autooxidation of soybean oil in cyclodextrin emulsion. J. Agric. Fd Chem., 40 , 945–948. Nakamura T. Antioxidant properties of xanthium on the autooxidation of soybean

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