Although writing as an economist, János Kornai addressed fundamental questions of political economy throughout his career. These considerations began with his model of state socialist economies, but were explicit in his work on transitions and the political economy of reform as well. This paper provides an overview of those contributions, with a particular attention to the relationship between regime type – democracy and authoritarian rule – and economic structures, processes, and outcomes.
In the paper we give some remarks on the article of Janet Mills. In particular, the proof of Lemma 1.2 (in her work) is incorrect, and so the proof of Theorem 3.5 is not valid, too. Using different methods we show the mentioned theorem. Moreover, we find a new equivalent condition to the statements in Theorem 3.5. In particular, an explicit definition of a new class of orthodox semigroups is introduced.
The article applies to translation some ideas from critical discourse analysis and discusses the potential effects of translational solutions on the ideological content of texts in the light of a small-scale study on student translations. Ideology refers here to the ways in which linguistic choices made by the writer or translator of a text, first, create a particular perspective on the events portrayed, second, may reflect the writer's opinions and attitudes, and third, may be used to influence readers' opinions. Particular linguistic structures, such as vocabulary, finite and nonfinite constructions, active and passive forms, and grammatical metaphors, can be seen as conscious or unconscious strategies which realise ideological meanings. In translation, ideologically motivated linguistic structures of a source text may be manipulated either unintentionally because of insufficient language and/or translation skills or lacking knowledge of the relationship between language and ideology, or intentionally owing to translation norms, requirements of the translation commission or the translator's own attitudes towards the source text subject. The analysis of Finnish translations of English magazine articles made by translation students focused on explicitating and implicitating translation strategies. Implicitation was found to be much more frequent than explicitation. Explicitation included, for instance, replacing a source-text nominalisation with a Finnish verb phrase and making clausal relations more explicit by adding connectives to the texts. Implicitation involved turning verb phrases into nominalisations and complete relative clauses into complex premodified noun phrases. These strategies changed the viewpoints and occasionally even modified the opinions expressed by the source-text writers. The students' non-systematic application of opposite strategies suggests that source text manipulation was mainly caused by insufficient skills and knowledge rather than ideological motivations.
A pretopology on a given set can be generated from a filter of reflexive relations on that set (we call such a structure a
preuniformity). We show that the familly of filters inducing a given pretopology on Xform a complete lattice in the lattice of filters on X. The smallest and largest elements of that lattice are explicitly given. The largest element is characterized by a condition
which is formally equivalent to a property introduced by Knaster--Kuratowski--Mazurkiewicz in their well known proof of Brouwer's
fixed point theorem. Menger spaces and probabilistic metric spaces also generate pretopologies. Semi-uniformities and pretopologies
associated to a possibly nonseparated Menger space are completely characterized.
More than hundred years ago R. Bricard determined all continuously flexible octahedra. On the other hand, also the geometric
characterization of first-order flexible octahedra has been well known for a long time. The objective of this paper is to
analyze the cases between, i.e., octahedra which are infinitesimally flexible of order n > 1 but not continuously flexible. We prove explicit necessary and sufficient conditions for the orders two, three and even
for all n < 8, provided the octahedron under consideration is not totally flat. Any order ≥ 8 implies already continuous flexibility,
as the configuration problem for octahedra is of degree eight.
Gamma-ray treatment in the presence of ozone (O3) and titanium dioxide (TiO2) showed an efficient removal of trichloroethylene (TCE) and perchloroethylene (PCE). Without gamma-irradiation, TCE and PCE were not sufficiently decomposed to comply with the water quality limit of groundwater. However, near 100% of TCE and PCE were removed at a dose of 300 Gy in the presence of O3 and TiO2, where TiO2 showed an explicit enhancement of decomposition. Cytotoxicity test using Chinese hamster V79 cells showed no toxicity of the TCE and PCE decomposition products.
matrices with entries being zero or one and the number of changes, i.e., the number of (horizontally or vertically) adjacent
entries which are different. We extend these results in many ways. For instance, we exhibit that the limiting distribution
is Gaussian and get explicit formul for some moments even in the general instance of d dimensions (instead of just two).