Authors:Rachel Popelka-Filcoff, Claire Lenehan, Michael Glascock, John Bennett, Attila Stopic, Jamie Quinton, Allan Pring, and Keryn Walshe
Ochre is a significant material in Aboriginal Australian cultural expression from ceremonial uses to its application on many
types of artifacts. However, ochre is a complex material, with associated surrounding minerals potentially challenging the
overall analysis. In recent literature several studies have attempted to characterize ochre by a variety of techniques to
understand procurement and trade. However, ochre is difficult to differentiate on major elemental or mineralogical composition
and requires a detailed analysis of its geochemical “fingerprint”. Neutron activation analysis (NAA) provides the high sensitivity
(sub-ppm), precision and accuracy in multi-elemental analysis required for ochre. The elements of interest for ochre generally
include rare earth elements (REEs) and certain transition metal elements as well as arsenic and antimony. Data from relative
comparator NAA (MURR, University of Missouri, USA) is compared with data from k0-NAA OPAL (ANSTO, Lucas Heights, Australia). A discussion of the two methods will be examined for their utility in “fingerprinting”
the provenance of ochre. The continuing importance of NAA to archaeometry will also be discussed.
Authors:Anna Gałan, Wioleta Jesionek, Barbara Majer-Dziedzic, Łukasz Lubicki, and Irena Choma
Coffee, due to its common consumption, is one of the main sources of polyphenols in human diet. Coffee species and coffee-related products differ in composition and content of main components, such as chlorogenic acid and caffeine. Chemical and biological fingerprints of various Coffea arabica L. extracts were obtained in order to check and compare their antibacterial and antioxidant properties. The antibacterial activity of green and roasted coffee seeds and pomace was evaluated against Bacillus subtilis using thin-layer chromatography (TLC)-direct bioautography. TLC-2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) test was used to determine antioxidant properties of the afore-mentioned extracts. Furthermore, different solvents and several extraction methods such as simple maceration, maceration under stirring, and ultrasonic accelerated extraction were tested. The most efficient method of extraction of caffeine and chlorogenic acid was chosen based on quantitative TLC analysis. Additionally, these two main components of coffee were quantitatively determined in commercial products of green coffee.
Authors:Mirosław Hawrył, Małgorzata Niemiec, and Monika Waksmundzka-Hajnos
Two-dimensional separations were performed on polar bonded stationary phase of type cyanopropyl-silica and diol-silica by use of non-aqueous eluents (polar modifier dissolved in n-heptane) as the first direction eluents and aqueous eluents (organic modifier — MeOH dissolved in water) as the second direction eluents. The chromatographic process was performed in micro scale using 5 × 5 cm plates, small volumes of eluents, and 10 μL of plant extracts to obtain satisfying separation. Plates developed in horizontal chambers were dried and observed in UV light (254 nm and 366 nm) photographed by digital camera and derivatized by 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) to detect antioxidants (free radical scavengers) or derivatized by Naturstoff reagent to detect phenolic compounds (characteristic luminescence of some phenolic compounds). The above experiments give the possibility to construct fingerprints for investigated Mentha species and varieties and preparations containing the herb. It can be used in quality control of the plant material and its antioxidative activity.
Authors:Astha Varma, Harish Padh, and Neeta Shrivastava
Quantitative evaluation of phytochemical diversity in Adhatoda vasica Nees populations from five different ecogeographical regions was performed using a highly sensitive, robust and economic high performance thin layer chromatography (HPTLC) procedure. The method was validated for specificity, precision and accuracy as per the guidelines affirmed by International Conference on Harmonization of technical requirements for registration of pharmaceuticals for human use (ICH). The findings support the existence of distinct natural chemotypes within the species. Two out of the five regions had about three times higher mean vasicine content than the remaining three regions. The comparative phytochemical fingerprint profiles were quite similar except for the concentration variation seen for different alkaloids. As the quinazoline alkaloids are the biologically active compounds in A. vasica, the samples that accumulate high levels of alkaloids seem to be promising for further propagation.
Authors:Jogender Lalla, Purnima Hamrapurkar, and Santosh Sacket
The oleo-gum-resin known as ‘guggul’, obtained from the plant
, Hook (family Burseraceae), is widely used, as a component of formulations containing other Ayurvedic drugs, for treatment of hypercholesterolemia, rheumatism, and arthritis. Chemically, guggul contains two active keto steroids, guggulsterones
, which are reported to be responsible for its antihyperlipidemic activity. These
isomers have been isolated, purified by TLC and column chromatography, and characterized by determination of melting point and by acquisition of UV, IR, and NMR spectra. After confirmation of their identity, they were used as biomarkers in HPTLC fingerprinting analysis of five commercial Ayurvedic formulations, four tablets and a capsule, all of which contain guggul as a constituent. The analytical method was fully validated. Extrapolation was used to calculate probable amounts of guggul added to the formulations on the basis of
Authors:D. W. Efurd, R. E. Steiner, S. P. LaMont, J. A. Musgrave, and D. L. Kottmann
We have developed cleanroom compatible techniques for processing bone samples for characterization of their uranium and plutonium
content. The bone samples are dried and ashed in quartz crucibles placed inside cleanroom compatible thermal ashing furnaces.
The bone ash is dissolved in ultra-pure acids prepared by sub-boiling distillation. The uranium and plutonium in the samples
are isolated and purified by ion-exchange chromatography and measured by thermal ionization mass spectrometry. The technique
is capable of detecting 74 picograms of 238U and 8 femtograms of 239Pu in 100 mg bone ash samples. If the ash contains larger amounts of uranium and plutonium, the technique can be used to isotopically
fingerprint the material to identify potential origins.
Authors:G. Steinhauser, M. Bichler, G. Eigelsreiter, and A. Tischner
Sixteen pumice samples produced by the youngest eruption sequences of Mt. Pelato (Island of Lipari, Italy) were analyzed with
instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) for their major and trace element contents, in particular Al, Ba, Ca, Ce,
Co, Cr, Cs, Dy, Eu, Fe, Hf, K, La, Lu, Mn, Na, Nd, Rb, Sb, Sm, Ta, Tb, Th, Ti, U, V, Yb, Zn, and Zr. A pumice from the archaeological
excavation in Tel Megadim, Israel, could be correlated to this volcanic source, using its chemical fingerprint. This result,
together with the background information about the well dated eruption cycles of this volcano, lead to the assumption that
trade connections existed between cultures in Palestine and the Tyrrhenian region during the Persian Period (approx. between
the 6th and 3rd century B.C.), in spite of the long distance of over 2000 km.
A procedure is demonstrated, through a simulation study, for the determination of the origin of unknown spent nuclear fuel,
an important and challenging task in nuclear forensics. The procedure is an isotopic fingerprinting method relying on the
fission product content of the unknown. The ‘unknown’ nuclear material is represented by the spent nuclear fuel of known origin
in order to demonstrate the method and verify its predictive capabilities. The method is based on the comparison of the fission
product compositions of the ‘unknown’ material and simulated known spent fuels from a range of commercial nuclear power stations
using the multivariate statistical technique of factor analysis. Then, the provenance of the ‘unknown’ spent fuel is the commercial
fuel with which it exhibits the highest similarity with respect to the fission product content.
Authors:Andrea Valasek, Írisz Éva Kiss, István Fodor, Márk Kovács, Péter Urbán, Éva Jámbor, Csaba Fekete, and Ildikó Kerepesi
Saccharomonospora azurea SZMC 14600 is a member of the family Pseudonocardiaceae exclusively used for industrial scale production of primycin a large 36-membered non-polyene macrolide lactone antibiotic belonging to the polyketide class of natural products. Even though maximum antibiotic yield has been achieved by empirically optimized two-step fermentation process, little is known about the molecular components and mechanisms underlying the efficient antibiotic production. In order to identify differentially expressed proteins (DEPs) between the pre- and main-fermentation stages of primycin, comparative 2D-PAGE experiments were performed. In total, 98 DEP spots were reproducibly detected, out of which four spots were excised from gels, and identified through MALDI-TOF/TOF mass spectrometry. Peptide mass fingerprint analysis revealed peptide matches to HicB antitoxin for the HicAB toxin-antitoxin system (EHK86651), to a nucleoside diphosphate kinase regulator ((Ndk; EHK81899) and two other proteins with unknown function (EHK88946 and EHK86777).
Authors:Cornelia Locher, Edith Tang, Jonas Neumann, and Tomislav Sostaric
This article presents the findings of an in-depth study on high-performance thin-layer chromatographic (HPTLC) profiling of Jarrah (Eucalyptus marginata) and Manuka (Leptospermum spp.) honeys following a simple one-step solvent extraction process. The study demonstrates that different HPTLC fingerprints are obtained from honeys from varying floral sources and that honeys of the same floral origin present a consistent reproducible HPTLC profile. In addition, the linearity and reproducibility of this technique as well as its ability to detect (accidental or deliberate) contaminations with honeys of different floral sources are demonstrated. The study thus illustrates the usefulness of HPTLC profiling as a potential quality control tool that might complement other analytical techniques used in the authentication of monofloral honeys.