Authors:B. Riscob, Mohd. Shakir, V. Ganesh, N. Vijayan, M. A. Wahab, and G. Bhagavannarayana
Hardness is an important solid state property, which is related to the bond strength on one hand and to the defect structure on the other hand. Hardness tests are commonly used to determine the structural and mechanical properties of the crystals. This test
Authors:Monika Božiková, Peter Hlaváč, Vlasta Vozárová, Zuzana Hlaváčová, Ľubomír Kubík, Peter Kotoulek, and Ján Brindza
Biczó , V. , Fekete , A. , Scherer , R. ( 2013 ). Influence of composition and storage conditions on chocolate hardness and heat resistance . Progress in Agricultural Engineering Sciences , 9 ( 1 ): 55 – 73
Authors:Gábor Horváth, Gyula Tolvaj, Tünde Halász, and Gyula Stotz
The first choice and most efficient therapy for chronic hepatitis C is pegylated interferon + ribavirin treatment. The introduction and application of the STOP rule (pegylated interferon + ribavirin treatment should be stopped in cases without sufficient virological response to therapy at Week 12 or 24) is motivated by the very high cost of this treatment. The application of the STOP rule has the disadvantage of ‘dropping out’ these patients from the proven benefits of one year interferon treatment (it arrests or decreases inflammation, delays or prevents progression to cirrhosis, and reduces the risk of a developing hepatocellular carcinoma), observed even in virologically slow, partial, or non-responder patients who received one year interferon therapy. Based on these data, the official Hungarian treatment protocol allows and recommends the continuation of antiviral treatment by natural interferon for patients whose pegylated interferon + ribavirin treatment should have been stopped because of the STOP rule. In 15 patients whose pegylated interferon + ribavirin treatment should have been stopped because of the STOP rule (8 men, 7 women, age: 35 to 63 years, mean: 48.8 years; HCV genotype: 1b; HAI: mean: 6.7; SD: ±5.03; stage: mean: 1.75; SD: ±0.9), the treatment was continued with natural interferon for further 16 to 36 (mean: 23.7) weeks. The total duration of treatment was 48 to 52 weeks, and the duration of follow-up was at least 6 months. The control group consisted of 18 patients whose pegylated interferon + ribavirin treatment had to be stopped because of the STOP rule (7 men, 11 women, age: 32 to 63 years, mean: 48.7 years; HCV genotype: 1b; HAI: mean: 10.1; SD: ±4.8; stage: mean: 2.0; SD: ±0.6). The duration of follow-up was at least 6 months. There was no significant difference between the two groups. Due to the treatment with pegylated interferon + ribavirin, ALT levels showed a marked decrease (73.4 U/L; SD: ±25.5 versus 45.9 U/L; SD: ±22.1) and this reduction remained unchanged also during the treatment with natural interferon and the follow-up period (45.7 U/L; SD: ±15.1 and 49.3 U/L; SD: ±19.4; p < 0.001). The difference is significant. In the control group, ALT levels decreased (108.5 U/L; SD: ±69.8 versus 86.0 U/L; SD: ±82.8) due to the treatment with pegylated interferon + ribavirin, but increased after cessation of the therapy (99.7 U/L; SD: ±60.9). The biochemical response (significant reduction of ALT level) which was detected during the pegylated interferon + ribavirin treatment remained permanent during the continuation and after the cessation of the therapy in the natural interferon treated group, while relapse occurred in every case in the control group. The viral load increased at least 1 log
after cessation of the therapy in pegylated interferon + ribavirin treatment non-responder patients. Natural interferon therapy was able to control viral replication (it prevents the increase of viral load), but after the withdrawal of natural interferon dosage, similar elevation of viral load was observed. The subjective side effects of natural interferon treatment were milder. Leukopenia and thrombocytopenia occurred more rarely and to a lesser extent than during the combined antiviral therapy. Patients have no difficulty in the application of natural interferon; probably the positive psychic effect of not being debarred from treatment compensated for the technical hardness (three injections weekly). The authors suggest widespread application of this therapeutic possibility and further studies with larger a number of patients.
Authors:E. Firatligil-Durmuş, A. Sýkorová, E. Šárka, Z. Bubník, M. Schejbal, and J. Příhoda
Dobraszczyk, B.J., Whitworth, M.B., Vincent, J.F.V., Khan, A.A. 2002. Single kernel wheat hardness and fracture properties in relation to density and the modelling of fracture in wheat endosperm. J. Cereal Sci.