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Enzyme assays were carried out to study the influence of Nucleopolyhedrovirus (HearNPV) and Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. kurstaki (Btk) infection on the activity levels of pesticide detoxification enzymes, viz. carboxyl esterase (CE) and mixed function oxidase (MFO) in Helicoverpa armigera . HearNPV at LC 50 reduced the MFO activity by 12.0–13.5% and CE activity by 14.88–15.25% at 96 hours after treatment. Btk at LC 50 reduced the MFO activity by 4.17–4.27% and CE activity by 5.77–6.55%. The joint application of HearNPV and cypermethrin at LC 50 +LC 50 resulted in suppression of MFO activity by 15.08–17.35% and CE activity by 16.39–17.30%. Combined treatment of Btk and cypermethrin resulted in suppression of MFO by 4.24–6.72 and CE by 8.42–8.97%, respectively.

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Treatment with various concentrations (0, 5, 15 and 20%) of PEG was used to simulate water stress, followed by inoculation with Drechslera tritici-repentis (DTR) at two different points of time (6 and 72 h after the PEG treatment) in two DTR resistant (M-3 and Mv Magvas) and two sensitive (Bezostaya 1 and Glenlea) wheat varieties. The reduction in biomass production due to the PEG treatments was more pronounced in the shoots than in the roots. While in the case of Bezostaya 1 5% PEG reduced the level of infection, 20% PEG treatment lowered the tolerance level of M-3. DTR infection may be more efficient in inducing antioxidative defence systems than water stress. However, there was no direct correlation between the activity of the individual antioxidant enzymes and the drought or DTR tolerance of wheat plants.

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Cereal Research Communications
Authors: András Takács, Gabriella Kazinczi, József Horváth, and Mária Hadzsi
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Cereal Research Communications
Authors: László Zsiros, Ágnes Szatmári, László Palkovics, Zoltán Klement, and Zoltán Bozsó
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European Journal of Microbiology and Immunology
Authors: Cosme Alvarado-Esquivel, Ángel Osvaldo Alvarado-Félix, and Gustavo Alexis Alvarado-Félix

neurological disorders [ 2 ]. Toxocariasis is one of the most commonly reported zoonotic helminth infections in the world [ 3 ]. Transmission to humans occurs by accidental infection of eggs present in, for instance, contaminated fruits or vegetables [ 4

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References 1. Leffler DA , Lamont JT : Clostridium difficile infection . N Engl J Med 372 , 1539 – 1548 ( 2015

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. Brennan , J.M. , Leonard , G. , Fagan , B. , Cooke , B. M. , Ritient , A. , Ferracane , R. 2007 . Comparison of commercial European wheat cultivars to Fusarium infection of head and seedling tissue . Plant Pathol. 56 : 55 – 64

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European Journal of Microbiology and Immunology
Authors: Ali Asghar Ayatollahi, Abolfazl Amini, Somayeh Rahimi, Saeid Rahbar Takrami, Reza Kazemi Darsanaki, and Muhammad Sadeqi Nezhad

M , Vafaei AA : Survey of contamination stethoscopes as one of the factor for nosocomial infections: transmission in educational hospitals in Semnan city . Iran J Infect Dis Trop Med 8 ( 23 ), 25 – 28 ( 2004

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the last few years [ 5 ], the clinical problem of infections due to drug resistant non-fermenting Gram-negative bacteria (NFGNB) has been recognized since the beginning of the 21st century [ 6 ]. NFGNB are a taxonomically-heterogenous group, including

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Cereal Research Communications
Authors: Richard Gáborjányi, Asztéria Almási, Éva Sárvári, Károly Bóka, Rita Lózsa, and Zsolt Sági
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