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Enzyme assays were carried out to study the influence of Nucleopolyhedrovirus (HearNPV) and Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. kurstaki (Btk) infection on the activity levels of pesticide detoxification enzymes, viz. carboxyl esterase (CE) and mixed function oxidase (MFO) in Helicoverpa armigera . HearNPV at LC 50 reduced the MFO activity by 12.0–13.5% and CE activity by 14.88–15.25% at 96 hours after treatment. Btk at LC 50 reduced the MFO activity by 4.17–4.27% and CE activity by 5.77–6.55%. The joint application of HearNPV and cypermethrin at LC 50 +LC 50 resulted in suppression of MFO activity by 15.08–17.35% and CE activity by 16.39–17.30%. Combined treatment of Btk and cypermethrin resulted in suppression of MFO by 4.24–6.72 and CE by 8.42–8.97%, respectively.

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Treatment with various concentrations (0, 5, 15 and 20%) of PEG was used to simulate water stress, followed by inoculation with Drechslera tritici-repentis (DTR) at two different points of time (6 and 72 h after the PEG treatment) in two DTR resistant (M-3 and Mv Magvas) and two sensitive (Bezostaya 1 and Glenlea) wheat varieties. The reduction in biomass production due to the PEG treatments was more pronounced in the shoots than in the roots. While in the case of Bezostaya 1 5% PEG reduced the level of infection, 20% PEG treatment lowered the tolerance level of M-3. DTR infection may be more efficient in inducing antioxidative defence systems than water stress. However, there was no direct correlation between the activity of the individual antioxidant enzymes and the drought or DTR tolerance of wheat plants.

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Cereal Research Communications
Authors: László Zsiros, Ágnes Szatmári, László Palkovics, Zoltán Klement, and Zoltán Bozsó
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Cereal Research Communications
Authors: András Takács, Gabriella Kazinczi, József Horváth, and Mária Hadzsi
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European Journal of Microbiology and Immunology
Authors: Cosme Alvarado-Esquivel, Ángel Osvaldo Alvarado-Félix, and Gustavo Alexis Alvarado-Félix

neurological disorders [ 2 ]. Toxocariasis is one of the most commonly reported zoonotic helminth infections in the world [ 3 ]. Transmission to humans occurs by accidental infection of eggs present in, for instance, contaminated fruits or vegetables [ 4

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Cereal Research Communications
Authors: Richard Gáborjányi, Asztéria Almási, Éva Sárvári, Károly Bóka, Rita Lózsa, and Zsolt Sági
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The aim of the study was to evaluate the effect of the artificial inoculation of barley kernels and leaves with a suspension of spores and mycelium of species belonging to the genera Ascochyta, Bipolaris, Drechslera and Fusarium. The following procedures were applied: inoculation of kernels germinating on blotting paper, inoculation of kernels germinating in the soil and spraying of young barley plants. Intensity of the occurring disease symptoms depended on the fungal species used and the method of inoculation. All genera of fungi used for inoculation of kernels on blotting paper statistically significantly reduced the percentage of germinated kernels. In the case of inoculation of kernels sown in the soil, emergence rates of barley plants were statistically significantly reduced only by B. sorokiniana (22.5–70%) and Fusarium sp. (5–55%), the control 92.5–95%. The use of B. sorokiniana in the inoculation of young barley plants caused spots (30–60% of infected plants), which were not observed in species from the other genera.

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References 1. Leffler DA , Lamont JT : Clostridium difficile infection . N Engl J Med 372 , 1539 – 1548 ( 2015

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. Brennan , J.M. , Leonard , G. , Fagan , B. , Cooke , B. M. , Ritient , A. , Ferracane , R. 2007 . Comparison of commercial European wheat cultivars to Fusarium infection of head and seedling tissue . Plant Pathol. 56 : 55 – 64

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