The paper investigates the symbolical and real borders in the areas of contact between the Jews of the Hungarian countryside and the peasants between the two world wars. The symbolical borders are created principally by differences in mentality. These are the borders which for the most part and inherently separate. Tradition, culture, religion, way of life, in many cases the language, and the minority or majority status all separate. Most of these raise an insuperable barrier between the two social groups although - as we shall see - there are cases when some of these borders can be crossed. In contrast, economic interests and the need for social contacts generally make the Jewish and peasant communities dependent on each other, and here the borders also open up more often.
This paper claims that language is part a culture, and the linguistic behaviour of the individual and the community is one of the forms of cultural behaviour. Analyzing this behaviour, the author demonstrates the symbolic function of language in bilingual and multilingual communities and societies. This symbolic role is discussed in this paper in two aspects: 1. in everyday communication and its manifestations in the literary tradition (English–French double linguistic functions in Charlotte Brontë’s novels as well as in Krleža’s and Kukučín’s works in the Austro-Hungarian Monarchy), 2. illustrating the symmetrical and asymmetrical linguistic forms of minority folk culture (Slovaks living in Hungary and Hungarians living in Transylvania and Romania).
I provide a synchronic account of the variation between the marked and unmarked forms of the 1SG.INDEF of Hungarian (-ik) verbs; verbs that end in (-ik) in the 3SG.INDEF. I use a generalised mixed-effects regression analysis to explore how these forms vary in an extensive sample of the language, the Hungarian Webcorpus. I find that verbs' preference for the marked/unmarked form is determined by their lemma frequency and their prototypicality as members of the (-ik) class. These results are consistent with a morphological levelling account of variation in Hungarian verbal morphology, in which verbs migrate away from the minority (-ik) class and into the majority regular class. This suggests a picture of variation in Hungarian verbs that is shaped by lexical organisation, morphophonology, and social dynamics.
Nicholas Kaldor and János Kornai are known in the academic literature as the most principled and unyielding opponents of the neoclassical, mainstream economics in general, and the Arrow-Debreu General Equilibrium Theory (GET) in particular since the beginning of the 1970s. Nevertheless, they remained in the minority camp with their views until today. The mainstream of the economic profession still holds that only the neoclassical paradigm offers a comprehensive, systematic, consistent and, above all, mathematical (hence “scientific”) description of how modern economies operate. This paper aims at investigating why these two prolific writers, who were friends and spoke the same mother tongue, did not find a common ground and did not even try to build a school of followers jointly.
If one needs to obtain some information on the Roman conquest of Pannonia, his job seems to be easy: he has just to read both the ancient sources and many a modern work about this issue. But there are three problems: 1) the Greek and Latin sources are scanty, very poor in details and sometimes misleading; 2) the modern scholars often echo and deepen the errors of the ancient sources while adding other mistakes of their own; 3) mainstream opinions as well as minority views about Pannonian ethnography are premised on false or faulty assumptions and distort further our understanding of the historical events. This paper wants to correct both ancient errors and modern ones. Its author tried to reconstruct a coherent and clear picture of bellum Pannonicum in 12-9 BC; he also aimed at throwing new light on the ethnic composition of the Pannonian tribes.
Authors:Sandra Jhean-Larose, Bruno Lecoutre, and Guy Denhière
This study looks at how combinations of two French nouns are interpreted. The order of occurrence of the constituents of two types of conceptual combinations, relation and property, was manipulated in view of determining how property-based and relation-based interpretations evolve with age. Three groups of French-speaking children (ages 6, 8, and 10) and a group of adults performed an interpretation-selection task. The results for the children indicated that while property-based interpretations increased with age, relation-based interpretations were in the majority for both combination types, whereas for the adults, relation-based interpretations were in the minority for property combinations. For the children and adults alike, the most frequent interpretations were ones in which the head noun came first and was followed by the modifier (the opposite of the order observed for English).
Authors:Sebastian Cwiklinski, C. Edmund Bosworth, Gyula Wojtilla, Dániel Zoltán Kádár, and Réka Takács
Kleinmichel, Sigrid: Halpa in Choresrn (Hwarazm) und Atin Ayi im Ferghanatal. Zur Geschichte des Lesens in Usbekistan im 20. Jahrhundert. (ANOR 4); Szombathy, Zoltán: The Roots of Arabic Genealogy. A Study in Historical Anthropology. (Documenta et monographiae I); Boccali, G.-Pieruccini, C.-Vacek, J. (eds): Pandanus '01 Research in Indian Classical Literature; Vacek, J.-Preinhalterova, H. (eds): Pandanus '02 Nature in Indian Literatures and Art; Heidrich, Joachim-Rüstau, Hiltrud-Weidemann, Diethelm (eds): Indian Culture: Continuity and Discontinuity. In Memory of Walter Ruben (1899-1982). (Abhandlungen der Leibniz-Sozietät, Band 9); Mylius, Klaus: Wörterbuch Ardhamagadhi-Deutsch; Di Renjie pingzhuan [Critical Biogaphy of Di Renjie]; Gladney, Dru C.: Ethnic Identity in China: The Making of a Muslim Minority Nationality. Case Studies in Cultural Anthropology (George and Louise Spindler, eds)
Authors:János Csorba, Beáta Ficsor, Ágnes Horváth, Edit Nagy, Adrienn Bóna, Zsuzsa Sörfőző, Péter Steiner, Éva Harkány, and Zsuzsa Babrik
A tanulmány bemutatja a „Pannónia” dunántúli serdülőpszichiátriai multicentrikus, keresztmetszeti felmérés célkitűzéseit és eredményeit. A tervezett hét megyéből ötben sikerült a dunántúli régióban klinikai vizsgálatot végezni, s így felmérni minden új, egy év alatt a gondozóban jelentkező serdülő pszichiátriai beteget. A szerzők ismertetik a beteganyag diagnosztikai megoszlását, az elutasítási és lemorzsolódási arányt, a pszichiátriai betegségek kumulatív és egyes incidenciáit, továbbá közölnek néhány kisebbségre vonatkozó és egyéb demográfiai adatot is.
Citation distributions are extremely skewed. This paper addresses the following question: To what extent are national citation indicators influenced by a small minority of highly cited articles? This question has not been studied before at the level of national indicators. Using the scientific production of Norway as a case, we find that the average citation rates in major subfields are highly determined by one or only a few highly cited papers. Furthermore, there are large annual variations in the influence of highly cited papers on the average citation rate of the subfields. We conclude that an analysis of the underlying data for national indicators may be useful in creating awareness towards the occurrence of particular articles with great influence on what is normally considered an indicator of “national performance”, and that the common interpretation of the indicator on research policy level needs to be informed by this fact.
The Rusyn language in Slovakia was codified in 1995 on the basis of the country’s two most prevalent Rusyn dialects: East Zemplín and West Zemplín. From this perspective Rusyn is a relatively young Slavic language, and this despite its centuries-long history, which is marked by many conflicts concerning the question of a literary norm; the disputes concerning Rusyn have taken place on the territory of today’s Slovak Republic, as well as throughout all of historical Carpathian Rus. Any solutions concerning a Rusyn literary language were always connected to the question of the Rusyn minority’s ethnic identity [i.e. are they (Great) Russian, Ukrainian, or do they form a separate Slavic nationality?], and these issues were not possible to resolve until after 1989, when society began to enjoy new pluralistic conditions. Thus, the late twentieth-century codification of Rusyn on the basis of local dialects was the natural result of an expression of free will on the part of Rusyns, and a response to the dilemma of their ethnic identity. The codification of Rusyn became the basis for introducing the literary language into various public spheres in Slovakia – publishing and media, religious life, stage and theatre productions, and of course the literary world –, which had until 1995 used various forms of Rusyn dialects without applying standardized rules. The expansion of Rusyn into these spheres of life – especially into the educational system and government administration – required the existence of a standardized literary language. Thus, the implementation of literary Rusyn (in its written and spoken form) into the above-named spheres of life is an important step to guaranteeing the language’s further development.