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Mentálhigiéné és Pszichoszomatika
Authors: János Csorba, Beáta Ficsor, Ágnes Horváth, Edit Nagy, Adrienn Bóna, Zsuzsa Sörfőző, Péter Steiner, Éva Harkány, and Zsuzsa Babrik

A tanulmány bemutatja a „Pannónia” dunántúli serdülőpszichiátriai multicentrikus, keresztmetszeti felmérés célkitűzéseit és eredményeit. A tervezett hét megyéből ötben sikerült a dunántúli régióban klinikai vizsgálatot végezni, s így felmérni minden új, egy év alatt a gondozóban jelentkező serdülő pszichiátriai beteget. A szerzők ismertetik a beteganyag diagnosztikai megoszlását, az elutasítási és lemorzsolódási arányt, a pszichiátriai betegségek kumulatív és egyes incidenciáit, továbbá közölnek néhány kisebbségre vonatkozó és egyéb demográfiai adatot is.

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This study looks at how combinations of two French nouns are interpreted. The order of occurrence of the constituents of two types of conceptual combinations, relation and property, was manipulated in view of determining how property-based and relation-based interpretations evolve with age. Three groups of French-speaking children (ages 6, 8, and 10) and a group of adults performed an interpretation-selection task. The results for the children indicated that while property-based interpretations increased with age, relation-based interpretations were in the majority for both combination types, whereas for the adults, relation-based interpretations were in the minority for property combinations. For the children and adults alike, the most frequent interpretations were ones in which the head noun came first and was followed by the modifier (the opposite of the order observed for English).

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The paper investigates the symbolical and real borders in the areas of contact between the Jews of the Hungarian countryside and the peasants between the two world wars. The symbolical borders are created principally by differences in mentality. These are the borders which for the most part and inherently separate. Tradition, culture, religion, way of life, in many cases the language, and the minority or majority status all separate. Most of these raise an insuperable barrier between the two social groups although - as we shall see - there are cases when some of these borders can be crossed. In contrast, economic interests and the need for social contacts generally make the Jewish and peasant communities dependent on each other, and here the borders also open up more often.

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The study sums up the ethnographical achievements of Hiador Sztripszky (1876-1945), a now little-known Hungarian-Ruthenian ethnographer, bibliographer, linguist, literary historian and translator. The researcher, who had a thorough knowledge of the cultural history and ethnography/folkloristics of the Hungarians and the peoples living together with them, in particular of the Ruthenians and Romanians, did a great deal to study and make known the ethnocultural processes and influences. He also played a big role in collecting the material cultural heritage of the peoples of Transylvania for museums. After the Versailles Peace Treaty he was sent into early retirement as having been involved in the policy on the minorities, and in the last 25 years of his life he achieved substantial results mainly as a philologist in the study of the history and connections of the different ethnic groups and denominations. In addition to Sztripszky's work in ethnography, the study also discusses areas related to the latter problem.

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The paper proposes a short reflection on the nature of the post war political transformation in Sierra Leone, taking the visual signs of the streets as a starting point. The author observed the post-conflict democratisation process over five years, between 2008 and 2012, and describes how reading the political slogans, bill boards and popular graffitis allowed her following the subtle socio-economic changes characterising the country. The underlying argument is that the largely externally led liberal peace building using foreign and local NGOs as engines of a deep social transformation was based on abstract promises that ultimately failed to realise. Without effectively changing people’s lives, these abstract promises normalised a value system that prepared a capitalist take offbut ten years after the end of the civil war capitalist development still worked only for a tiny minority, making many people doubt about the benevolent nature of globalisation.

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This paper claims that language is part a culture, and the linguistic behaviour of the individual and the community is one of the forms of cultural behaviour. Analyzing this behaviour, the author demonstrates the symbolic function of language in bilingual and multilingual communities and societies. This symbolic role is discussed in this paper in two aspects: 1. in everyday communication and its manifestations in the literary tradition (English–French double linguistic functions in Charlotte Brontë’s novels as well as in Krleža’s and Kukučín’s works in the Austro-Hungarian Monarchy), 2. illustrating the symmetrical and asymmetrical linguistic forms of minority folk culture (Slovaks living in Hungary and Hungarians living in Transylvania and Romania).

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A land grant issued by Raṇasiṃhadeva of the Candrāvatī branch of the Paramāra dynasty in North-West India has recently come to my attention. It contains a genealogy of the Candrāvatī line from Utpalarāja to Raṇasiṃha. This ruler was hitherto known only from one published inscription (the Roheญā plates), and has been thought to be a usurper who briefly snatched the throne from the legitimate ruler Dhārāvarṣa. The grant, dated 1 November 1161 CE, makes no mention of Dhārāvarṣa, calling for a reinterpretation of some ambiguous lines of the Roheญā inscription. It is a possibility that Raṇasiṃha was not a usurper, but ruled as a regent during Dhārāvarṣa’s minority and then willingly handed the throne over to him.

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Acta Orientalia Academiae Scientiarum Hungaricae
Authors: Sebastian Cwiklinski, C. Edmund Bosworth, Gyula Wojtilla, Dániel Zoltán Kádár, and Réka Takács

Kleinmichel, Sigrid: Halpa in Choresrn (Hwarazm) und Atin Ayi im Ferghanatal. Zur Geschichte des Lesens in Usbekistan im 20. Jahrhundert. (ANOR 4); Szombathy, Zoltán: The Roots of Arabic Genealogy. A Study in Historical Anthropology. (Documenta et monographiae I); Boccali, G.-Pieruccini, C.-Vacek, J. (eds): Pandanus '01 Research in Indian Classical Literature; Vacek, J.-Preinhalterova, H. (eds): Pandanus '02 Nature in Indian Literatures and Art; Heidrich, Joachim-Rüstau, Hiltrud-Weidemann, Diethelm (eds): Indian Culture: Continuity and Discontinuity. In Memory of Walter Ruben (1899-1982). (Abhandlungen der Leibniz-Sozietät, Band 9); Mylius, Klaus: Wörterbuch Ardhamagadhi-Deutsch; Di Renjie pingzhuan [Critical Biogaphy of Di Renjie]; Gladney, Dru C.: Ethnic Identity in China: The Making of a Muslim Minority Nationality. Case Studies in Cultural Anthropology (George and Louise Spindler, eds)

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Abstract

I provide a synchronic account of the variation between the marked and unmarked forms of the 1SG.INDEF of Hungarian (-ik) verbs; verbs that end in (-ik) in the 3SG.INDEF. I use a generalised mixed-effects regression analysis to explore how these forms vary in an extensive sample of the language, the Hungarian Webcorpus. I find that verbs' preference for the marked/unmarked form is determined by their lemma frequency and their prototypicality as members of the (-ik) class. These results are consistent with a morphological levelling account of variation in Hungarian verbal morphology, in which verbs migrate away from the minority (-ik) class and into the majority regular class. This suggests a picture of variation in Hungarian verbs that is shaped by lexical organisation, morphophonology, and social dynamics.

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Summary  

The present essay is devoted to the various manifestations of transformation in Slavic literatures after 1989, when 300 million Slavs found themselves in the cultural paradigm diametrically opposed to the communist one, but not quite what it was designed to be by the dissidents and opposition members, i.e. advocates of civil society. This comparative panorama of Slavic literatures is presented from the perspective of postmodern culture and philosophy (Lyotard, Bauman, Rorty, Prigogine, Foucault, Derrida among others), legitimizing with its theories pluralism, the understanding of the multi-meaning nature of truth, the polyphony of cultures, and the significance of all minorities for the spiritual development of humankind. On the basis of selected examples from the literatures of West-, East- and South-Slavic countries, the author attempts to identify the crucial elements of transformation of the social and literary self-awareness of different generations in the post-communist Slavic countries over the last fifteen years. In the works of J. Topol, V. Pelevin, T. Rżewicz, D. Ugresić, T. Zabuzhko, or D. Bieńkowski she seeks an answer to the question what was realized out of various dreams of a better and braver world of pluralism and democracy. How do the transformationers, the transformed and the self-transforming “inhabitants” of the new reality recognize their social and ethical situation? Who are, in light of literature, the heroes of our time, and what is behind the notion of “new sensitivity”? What does the so-called “realcap” (real capitalism) mean in literature? And also, which spaces of freedom does the democratic system open for writers and minorities, and which new worlds of imagination does it create in a search for metaphysical, mythical, thanatological, religious and esoteric dimensions of human existence, constrained in the past by imposed, top-down atheism.

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