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The paper investigates the symbolical and real borders in the areas of contact between the Jews of the Hungarian countryside and the peasants between the two world wars. The symbolical borders are created principally by differences in mentality. These are the borders which for the most part and inherently separate. Tradition, culture, religion, way of life, in many cases the language, and the minority or majority status all separate. Most of these raise an insuperable barrier between the two social groups although - as we shall see - there are cases when some of these borders can be crossed. In contrast, economic interests and the need for social contacts generally make the Jewish and peasant communities dependent on each other, and here the borders also open up more often.

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The study sums up the ethnographical achievements of Hiador Sztripszky (1876-1945), a now little-known Hungarian-Ruthenian ethnographer, bibliographer, linguist, literary historian and translator. The researcher, who had a thorough knowledge of the cultural history and ethnography/folkloristics of the Hungarians and the peoples living together with them, in particular of the Ruthenians and Romanians, did a great deal to study and make known the ethnocultural processes and influences. He also played a big role in collecting the material cultural heritage of the peoples of Transylvania for museums. After the Versailles Peace Treaty he was sent into early retirement as having been involved in the policy on the minorities, and in the last 25 years of his life he achieved substantial results mainly as a philologist in the study of the history and connections of the different ethnic groups and denominations. In addition to Sztripszky's work in ethnography, the study also discusses areas related to the latter problem.

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This paper claims that language is part a culture, and the linguistic behaviour of the individual and the community is one of the forms of cultural behaviour. Analyzing this behaviour, the author demonstrates the symbolic function of language in bilingual and multilingual communities and societies. This symbolic role is discussed in this paper in two aspects: 1. in everyday communication and its manifestations in the literary tradition (English–French double linguistic functions in Charlotte Brontë’s novels as well as in Krleža’s and Kukučín’s works in the Austro-Hungarian Monarchy), 2. illustrating the symmetrical and asymmetrical linguistic forms of minority folk culture (Slovaks living in Hungary and Hungarians living in Transylvania and Romania).

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A land grant issued by Raṇasiṃhadeva of the Candrāvatī branch of the Paramāra dynasty in North-West India has recently come to my attention. It contains a genealogy of the Candrāvatī line from Utpalarāja to Raṇasiṃha. This ruler was hitherto known only from one published inscription (the Roheญā plates), and has been thought to be a usurper who briefly snatched the throne from the legitimate ruler Dhārāvarṣa. The grant, dated 1 November 1161 CE, makes no mention of Dhārāvarṣa, calling for a reinterpretation of some ambiguous lines of the Roheญā inscription. It is a possibility that Raṇasiṃha was not a usurper, but ruled as a regent during Dhārāvarṣa’s minority and then willingly handed the throne over to him.

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Acta Orientalia Academiae Scientiarum Hungaricae
Authors: Sebastian Cwiklinski, C. Edmund Bosworth, Gyula Wojtilla, Dániel Zoltán Kádár, and Réka Takács

Kleinmichel, Sigrid: Halpa in Choresrn (Hwarazm) und Atin Ayi im Ferghanatal. Zur Geschichte des Lesens in Usbekistan im 20. Jahrhundert. (ANOR 4); Szombathy, Zoltán: The Roots of Arabic Genealogy. A Study in Historical Anthropology. (Documenta et monographiae I); Boccali, G.-Pieruccini, C.-Vacek, J. (eds): Pandanus '01 Research in Indian Classical Literature; Vacek, J.-Preinhalterova, H. (eds): Pandanus '02 Nature in Indian Literatures and Art; Heidrich, Joachim-Rüstau, Hiltrud-Weidemann, Diethelm (eds): Indian Culture: Continuity and Discontinuity. In Memory of Walter Ruben (1899-1982). (Abhandlungen der Leibniz-Sozietät, Band 9); Mylius, Klaus: Wörterbuch Ardhamagadhi-Deutsch; Di Renjie pingzhuan [Critical Biogaphy of Di Renjie]; Gladney, Dru C.: Ethnic Identity in China: The Making of a Muslim Minority Nationality. Case Studies in Cultural Anthropology (George and Louise Spindler, eds)

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Summary  

The present essay is devoted to the various manifestations of transformation in Slavic literatures after 1989, when 300 million Slavs found themselves in the cultural paradigm diametrically opposed to the communist one, but not quite what it was designed to be by the dissidents and opposition members, i.e. advocates of civil society. This comparative panorama of Slavic literatures is presented from the perspective of postmodern culture and philosophy (Lyotard, Bauman, Rorty, Prigogine, Foucault, Derrida among others), legitimizing with its theories pluralism, the understanding of the multi-meaning nature of truth, the polyphony of cultures, and the significance of all minorities for the spiritual development of humankind. On the basis of selected examples from the literatures of West-, East- and South-Slavic countries, the author attempts to identify the crucial elements of transformation of the social and literary self-awareness of different generations in the post-communist Slavic countries over the last fifteen years. In the works of J. Topol, V. Pelevin, T. Rżewicz, D. Ugresić, T. Zabuzhko, or D. Bieńkowski she seeks an answer to the question what was realized out of various dreams of a better and braver world of pluralism and democracy. How do the transformationers, the transformed and the self-transforming “inhabitants” of the new reality recognize their social and ethical situation? Who are, in light of literature, the heroes of our time, and what is behind the notion of “new sensitivity”? What does the so-called “realcap” (real capitalism) mean in literature? And also, which spaces of freedom does the democratic system open for writers and minorities, and which new worlds of imagination does it create in a search for metaphysical, mythical, thanatological, religious and esoteric dimensions of human existence, constrained in the past by imposed, top-down atheism.

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The Rusyn language in Slovakia was codified in 1995 on the basis of the country’s two most prevalent Rusyn dialects: East Zemplín and West Zemplín. From this perspective Rusyn is a relatively young Slavic language, and this despite its centuries-long history, which is marked by many conflicts concerning the question of a literary norm; the disputes concerning Rusyn have taken place on the territory of today’s Slovak Republic, as well as throughout all of historical Carpathian Rus. Any solutions concerning a Rusyn literary language were always connected to the question of the Rusyn minority’s ethnic identity [i.e. are they (Great) Russian, Ukrainian, or do they form a separate Slavic nationality?], and these issues were not possible to resolve until after 1989, when society began to enjoy new pluralistic conditions. Thus, the late twentieth-century codification of Rusyn on the basis of local dialects was the natural result of an expression of free will on the part of Rusyns, and a response to the dilemma of their ethnic identity. The codification of Rusyn became the basis for introducing the literary language into various public spheres in Slovakia – publishing and media, religious life, stage and theatre productions, and of course the literary world –, which had until 1995 used various forms of Rusyn dialects without applying standardized rules. The expansion of Rusyn into these spheres of life – especially into the educational system and government administration – required the existence of a standardized literary language. Thus, the implementation of literary Rusyn (in its written and spoken form) into the above-named spheres of life is an important step to guaranteeing the language’s further development.

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Anthropology of ethnic conflict in the context of everyday life

A case of the settlements exchange during the Nagorno-Karabakh conflict

Acta Ethnographica Hungarica
Author: Arsen Hakobyan

Abrahamian , Levon 1996/1997: Typology of Aggressiveness and National Violence in the Former USSR. International Journal on Minority and Group Rights , 1996/97, Vol. 4,N. 3/4. 263–278. Abrahamian L

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Abstract  

Shelley Berc's A Girl's Guide to The Divine Comedyis a reimagining of Dante Alighieri's Commedia as a late20th-century American play that makes telling points about contemporary culture. In part 1 a female Dante descends into hell not to learn the nature of sin as her medieval counterpart does but to realize the depth of the female artist's exile from the political and artistic life of the dominant, androcratic, culture. Part 2's satire inverts the medieval purgatorial ascent with real-estate-agent Virgil and porn-star Beatrice trying to persuade Dante, now a male, to accept the culture's money-based, celebrity-oriented values. Part 3 of each work culminates in a vision. One difference, however, is that whereas the medieval vision is empyreal, the contemporary vision is terrestrial. A second difference is that the contemporary Dante, a girl again, relates in a narrative the vision of community for which she was put to death. Understanding the penalty exacted for a minority perception, she voluntarily returns to the underworld to give voice to other exiles.

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The Shors are one of the minor indigenous Turkic peoples of Siberia the majority of whom are living in the Kemerovo Oblast’. The Shor language is a conglomeration of two basically very different northern Turkic dialects, identified by river names as Kondoma Shor (the southern dialect) and Mrass Shor (the northern dialect). The Mrass dialect belongs to the azaq[/taγlγ]-group, whereas the Kondoma dialect belongs to the [ayaq/]taγlγ-group. The Shor literary language was formed on the basis of the Mrass dialect in the 1920s but soon after its formation it suffered a decline from the late 1930s to the early 1990s due to the Soviet policy of assimilation of minorities. It is now a severely endangered language. In the present paper the month names in Shor (Mrass dialect) are treated. The material is based on the fieldwork study of the Altaic Society of Korea and the testimony of month names in the Shor dictionaries. Wherever necessary, these month names were also compared with those to be found in other Turkic languages.

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