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In the microflora of sunflower seeds stored in domestic stores the, Alternaria species dominate, while those of Penicillium, Trichoderma, Stemphylium and Absidia spp. are present in lower numbers. During model tests (cca 20% seed moisture content, 25 °C, 4 weeks storage) the Alternaria species were almost completely eliminated and on the seeds mainly Aspergillus species, characteristic of stores, propagated. The moulds significantly deteriorated the quality of the seed and that of the produced oil and meal (reproductive ability, germinating power, oil content, lipoxygenase enzyme activity, acid value, peroxide value, fatty acid composition, UV absorbance, colour, sensorial properties, as well as the protein content, amino acid composition, colour and the smell of the meal), but no aflatoxin production occurred. The findings offer a comprehensive picture on the multiple destructive effects of incorrect storage.

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Durum wheat landraces are still cultivated to take advantage of their excellent grain and straw quality, adaptation to abiotic stresses, and extremely wide variety of uses. The safeguarding and rehabilitation of genetic inheritance requires genetic characterization and evaluation. In this study, forty durum wheat landraces originating from Mediterranean countries were evaluated according to agro-morphological and technological properties. We show that the germplasm was highly variable. The mean yellow pigment and protein content was higher in landraces (15.58%; 7.32 ppm) than in the Moroccan cultivars used as controls (14.6%; 5.48 ppm). In addition, principal component analysis identified five groups showing variable agronomic and qualitative characteristics that might be useful in the rational design of breeding programs.

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Acta Biologica Hungarica
Authors: Tanja Pfeiffer, Ivna Štolfa, M. Žanić, N. Pavičić, Vera Cesar, and H. Lepeduš

Olive is one of the most important cultivated Mediterranean plants. In order to determine the differences in frost resistance of two, two-year-old olive cultivars (Olea europaea cv. Leccino and cv. Oblica) growing on different types of nutrient substrates (soil and coconut fibres), the trees were exposed to low temperature (−5 °C) in the dark. It was shown that low temperature caused an increase in H2O2 concentration, level of lipid peroxidation and carbonyl protein content in both cultivars and on both nutrient substrates, respectively. The CAT and APX activities significantly varied depending on the cultivar, the nutrient substrate type and the time of exposure to low temperature. Cv. Oblica and cv. Leccino growing on coconut fibres showed a better antioxidative response to low temperature probably due to the higher nitrogen and phosphorus concentration established in this type of nutrient substrate. That positive antioxidative response determined on coconut fibres was more pronounced in leaves of cv. Leccino.

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Ten dicoccum wheats were analyzed for their physico-biochemical and milling properties to evaluate the pasta making potential. Dicoccums showed higher protein content and mixograph midline peak values compared to durum variety MACS2846. Mixographic properties of dicoccums were poor compared to durums, due to lower functional visco elastic gluten content. Dicoccums were poorer in milling properties compared to durums, due to lower test weight and thousand-grain weight. Among dicoccums, DDK 1025 showed high micro SDS sedimentation volume and strong mixographic properties, but values were still lesser compared to durum MACS 2846. HMW glutenin subunits in recently developed/released dicoccums were similar to durum parents and were different from the older dicoccums. LMW glutenin subunits, however, were similar to dicoccum parents, except in DDK 1025 which showed LMW glutenin subunits similar to durum wheat. To breed high quality dicoccum wheat for pasta products, breeders should select superior glutenin subunits composition, along with better mixograph properties, keeping morpho-botanical characteristics of dicoccum wheat.

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Winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) yield samples taken from a consecutive series of crop years representing drought, normal and moist conditions at the Nagygombos experimental site of the Szent István University have been evaluated. The impact of N topdressing and crop year conditions on the performance of protein and wet gluten content were studied.The results suggest that ascending levels of N topdressing, and increased number of applications had a beneficial effect on the protein content, as well as on wet gluten values. Crop year had a significant effect on quality manifestation. The drier the crop year, the better the recorded quality performance. The magnitude of changes was bigger in case of gluten than in that of protein values. There were minor differences between the two varieties examined, especially in their response patterns to nitrogen supply. Dough formation depends mainly on the gliadin/ glutenin ratio, but there is less information on the agronomic and climatic impacts that may cause alterations in that.

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In a long-term experiment on continuous maize set up by Béla Győrffy in 1959, changes in biotic and abiotic environmental factors were studied over time. The long-term effects and stability of the cropping systems, the year effects and the genotype × environment interactions were analysed. The original aim of the experiment was to determine whether the NPK nutrients in farmyard manure could be replaced partially or entirely by inorganic NPK fertiliser. In the present experiment the effect of farmyard manure, mineral fertiliser and the year effect on yield and yield stability were studied for four years (2005–2008). Various levels of farmyard manure and mineral fertiliser induced significant changes in the yield, harvest index, thousand-kernel mass, grain number per ear and grain protein content.

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The changes in the activity of enzyme polyphenol oxidase, the concentration of total soluble phenolic compounds and soluble protein content in different tobacco cultivars (Virginia and Burley) during cultivation, then in a combined curing model system were studied. The latter was a special combination of air-curing and flue-curing methods followed by a long fermentation period to optimize the treatment of tobacco plants used both as protein sources and starting materials in tobacco industry. The results suggest that a cultivation period of 13–14 weeks could be better for tobacco plants as protein sources, however, for starting materials for industrial use 16–17 weeks are optimal. It was found a four-week curing period could be the best for two tobacco cultivars (Virginia and Burley) in the case of using them both as protein sources and starting materials in tobacco industry.

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Okra seedlings tolerated soil-borne Rhizoctonia infection in strain dependent manner. No connection was revealed between pathogenicity of strains and their origin or taxonomic position. However, the okra proved to be susceptible to strains highly pathogenic to other host plants as well. R. zeae, a species new to European flora, was as aggressive to okra as the most potent R. solani strains. The effect of Rhizoctonia infection was more prominent on mass accumulation in hypocotyls than in cotyledons. The protein content and glutathione S-transferase activity increased in parallel with the evolution of disease syndrome. Metalaxyl, an acetanilide type systemic antioomycete fungicide induced glutathione S-transferase activity in cotyledons with 24 hours a phase, and this induction was more outstanding in symptomless seedlings grown in Rhizoctonia infested soil. It might be concluded, that the stress response of plants in tolerant host/parasite pair takes effect at higher level than in susceptible relationships.

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The influence of sulphur fertilization on plant dry weight, grain yield and quality of wheat grain (var. Mulan) was investigated. Wheat was grown in the small plot field experiments conducted in 2011–2012. At the beginning of tillering, the regenerative sulphur fertilization increased dry plant weight and sulphur concentration in dry matter by 28.1–43.2%. Sulphur application reduced the number of unproductive tillers and increased the number of ears per unit area by 10–70%. The highest grain yield was achieved after the application of solid fertilizers YaraBela SULFAN and fertilizer YaraVita Thiotrac applied in the late growing stages. Sulphur fertilization slightly improved the values of grain specific weight, protein content and Zeleny sedimentation volume, but the effect was not significant. The effect of fertilizer application significantly differed between the studied years.

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Pleurotus djamor from Yucatan State, Mexico was compared with a local variety of P. ostreatus , in terms of chemical composition and amino acid profile. No differences were found (P=0.55) in crude protein content of P. djamor and P. ostreatus (20.2±0.15 vs. 20.3±0.16 g/100 g DM., respectively). P. ostreatus had a lower fiber and fat content (P<0.05). No difference was found in ash content (P>0.05). P. ostreatus has a higher proportion (P<0.05) of valine, isoleucine, phenylalanine, aspartate and alanine while P. djamor had higher proportion (P<0.05) of proline and glutamate, no difference was found in the remaining amino acids. Both species had a high proportion of aspartate and glutamate. In general, the human amino acid requirements for adults are satisfied, however, leucine and lysine might become limiting. It was concluded that P. djamor can be included in human diet in similar fashion as P. ostreatus .

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