Authors:K.G. Mandal, K. Kannan, A.K. Thakur, D.K. Kundu, P.S. Brahmanand, and A. Kumar
Three-year (2007/2008–2009/2010) field experiment was conducted at the Directorate of Water Management Research Farm under Deras command in Odisha, India to assess the crop yield, irrigation water use efficiency (WUE), sustainable yield index (SYI), land utilization index (LUI) and changes in soil organic carbon (SOC) for dominant rice systems, viz. rice-maize-rice, rice-cowpea-rice, rice-sunflower-rice, rice-tomato-okra and rice-fallow-rice. Results revealed that crop yield, in terms of total system productivity (TSP) increased by 273, 113, 106 and 58% in rice-tomato-okra, rice-sunflower-rice, rice-maize-rice and rice-cowpea-rice, respectively, when compared to rice-fallow-rice. Irrigation WUE was 49–414% greater in rice-based diversified systems than the existing rice-fallow-rice (2.98 kg ha−1 mm−1). The SYI ranged from 0.65 to 0.75 indicating greater sustainability of the systems. Three crops in a sequence resulted in greater LUI and production efficiency compared to rice-fallow-rice. The gross economic return and benefit-cost ratio was in the order: rice-tomato-okra > rice-maize-rice > rice-sunflower-rice > rice-cowpea-rice > rice-fallow-rice. The SOC storage ranged from 40.55 Mg ha−1 in rice-fallow-rice to 46.23 Mg ha−1 in rice-maize-rice system. The other systems had also very close values of SOC storage with the rice-maize-rice system; there was a positive change of SOC (7.20 to 12.52 Mg ha−1) for every system, with highest in rice-maize-rice system and the lowest in rice-fallow-rice. It is concluded that the appropriate rice-based system would be rice-tomato-okra followed by rice-maize-rice, rice-sunflower-rice and rice-cowpea-rice. Rice-fallow-rice is not advisable because of its lower productivity, lower LUI and economic return.
Authors:A. Zervou, V. Sinanoglou, G. Papadas, N. Thomaidis, D. Meimaroglou, and S. Miniadis-Meimaroglou
The effects of different frying methods (oil free, extra virgin olive oil and sunflower oil pan-fried) on proximate, neutral and polar lipid composition as well as the fatty acid content of Spicara smaris, a fish species commonly consumed by Mediterranean people, were determined. Pan-frying caused insignificant changes in proteins and polar lipids, whereas a significant (P<0.05) decrease in moisture and ash content, and a significant (P<0.05) increase in the neutral lipids and total sterol content could be detected after pan frying in extra virgin olive oil (EVOO) and sunflower oil. The loss of the individual phospholipid content was not significant during the pan-frying process, but its proportion was influenced by the uptake of the culinary fat. The absorption of oil medium in pan-fried, in EVOO, and in sunflower oil samples resulted in an alteration of their fatty acid profiles including a significant (P<0.05) increase of C18:1ω-9 and C18:2ω-6 ratios and a decrease of EPA, DHA percentages as well as of the ω-3/ω-6 ratio. All frying methods affected (P<0.05) lipid quality indices but their values could be considered satisfactory in terms of healthiness. Among the fried samples, the oil free fried samples also presented the poorest triglyceride and cholesterol content, and the greatest ω-3/ω-6 ratio, thus, they were found to present the most appropriate frying method for healthy eating.
Jacob, J., Lawlor, D. W. (1992): Dependence of photosynthesis of sunflower and maize leaves on phosphate supply, ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase activity, and ribulose- 1,5-bisphosphate pool size
Authors:G. Szöllőskei, L. Wagner, Stefánia Németh, and F. Husvéth
In this experiment sunflower oil, soybean oil and fish oil were incubated in rumen-fistulated adult ewes (n = 5) to study conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) production in the rumen. The individual oils were incubated in nylon bags in the rumen on perlite carrier (40% oil, 60% carrier) over a period of 2, 4, 6, 8, 10 and 12 h for all treatments. During the incubation of each oil primarily the formation of the cis-9, trans-11 isomer of CLA could be observed. Both sunflower and soybean oils showed similar changes in the rumen. After the incubation of these two vegetable oils the proportion of linoleic acid decreased significantly as the duration of incubation increased in the rumen. These changes were accompanied by a significant increase in the amount of cis-9, trans-11 CLA. However, in the case of sunflower oil the rate of formation of the cis-9, trans-11 CLA isomer was significantly higher after the different incubation times as compared to soybean oil. Much lower amounts of CLA were formed when fish oil was incubated in the rumen. The level of cis-9, trans-11 isomer produced during these treatments was 10% less than the amount obtained with the other two oils of vegetable origin. Besides the cis-9, trans-11isomer, trans-10, cis-12 CLA could also be detected during the incubation of the different oils in the rumen. However, the level of this isomer was low and did not show consistent differences among the treatments. The results of this experiment indicate that the fatty acid composition of the oils and the duration of incubation collectively determine the amount of CLA produced in the first compartment of the forestomach of ruminants.
Authors:Z. Ali, D. James, W. O'Hare, F. Rowell, and S. Scott
An electronic nose utilising an array of six-bulk acoustic wave polymer coated Piezoelectric Quartz (PZQ) sensors has been developed. The nose was presented with 346 samples of fresh edible oil headspace volatiles, generated at 45°C. Extra virgin olive (EVO), Non-virgin olive oil (OI) and Sunflower oil (SFO), were used over a period of 30 days. The sensor responses were then analysed producing an architecture for the Radial Basis Function Artificial Neural Network (RBF). It was found that the RBF results were excellent, giving classifications of above 99% for the vegetable oil test samples.
Numerous different agroecosystems (alfalfa, apple, cereals, oilseed rape, maize, sunflower fields and plantations, a pasture and a compost hill) were investigated on the basis of the soil dwelling mites in two parts of Hungary. Twenty-three species of Mesostigmata, 13 Oribatida, one Astigmata and one Prostigmata are listed from these specific ecosystems, of which nine species, Alliphis halleri (G. and R. Canestrini, 1881); Antennoseius avius Karg, 1976; Antennoseius pannonicus Willmann, 1951; Arctoseius eremitus (Berlese, 1918); Cheiroseius bryophilus Karg, 1969; Leioseius insignis (Hirschmann, 1963); Oppiella loksai (Schalk, 1966); Punctodendrolaelaps fimetarius (Karg, 1965); Rhodacarellus perspicuus Halaśkova, 1958 are new to the Hungarian fauna.
Oil smears /2–10 mg/ on a filter paper were directly brominated by bromine vapor, and the quantity of Br reacted with the lipid was determined by instrumental neutron activation analysis. The iodine value for commercially available almond oil, sunflower oil, peanut oil, soy oil and sesame oil were determined by the proposed method. The relative standard deviation associated with the measurements was less than 3%. No significant difference was observed between the iodine values determined by the proposed method and that determined by one of the officially approved methods. The proposed method possesses the advantages of shortening reaction time and applicability to small sample size.
Authors:Sanjiv Arora, Rajeev Bagoria, and Mahender Kumar
Alpha-tocopherol (vitamin E) is the most widely used antioxidant for edible oils. The present investigation presents its effect
on the thermal degradation behavior of edible oils (sunflower, soybean, and their blend) through the use of dynamic thermogravimetry.
The study is based on the comparison of activation energies of decomposition process which were subsequently calculated using
preferred and reliable multiple-heating rate methods viz. Kissinger, Friedman, Ozawa–Flynn–Wall, and Coats–Redfern (modified).
It is concluded that the role of alpha-tocopherol as antioxidant at higher temperature is nearly accomplished.
Authors:J. Schmidt, F. Husvéth, J. Sipőcz, T. Tóth, and J. Fábián
Ten Holstein cows between 8 and 12 weeks in lactation were used to investigate the effect of feeding full-fat soybean, full-fat sunflower, and a Ca-soap source (Profat) on the conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) content of milk. Cows were fed the experimental fat sources in the dosage of 500 g crude fat daily. The results indicated that milk CLA content increased in relation to the linoleic acid concentration of experimental fat supplements, namely full-fat sunflower increased the most and Profat increased the least the CLA concentration in milk. The strength of the correlation was r=0.62 between the linoleic acid concentration in feed and the CLA content in milk. The strength of correlation increased to r=0.69 when both linoleic acid and linolenic acid concentration of feed were used in the calculation. Considering milk production and the daily production of CLA in milk, the following equation described the relationship between the linoleic acid content of fat supplements and CLA concentration in milk: x=167.52+0.483×y; where x=CLA mg l
milk and y=linoleic+linolenic acid content of fat sources, g/day. Along with milk CLA, the
-C18:1 concentration of milk also increased, but the magnitude of the increase was smaller compared to that of milk CLA.
This work presents a study of the thermal decomposition of commercial vegetable oils and of some of their thermal properties
by termogravimetry (TG), derivative termogravimetry (DTG) and by differential thermal analysis (DTA). Canola, sunflower, corn,
olive and soybean oils were studied. A simultaneous SDT 2960 TG/DTA from TA Instruments was used, with a heating rate of 10
K min-1 from 30 to 700C. A flow of 100 mL min-1 of air as the purge gas was used in order to burnout the oils during analysis to estimate their heat of combustion. From
the extrapolated decomposition onset temperatures obtained from TG curves, it can be seen that corn oil presents the highest
thermal stability (306C), followed by the sunflower one (304C). Olive oil presents the lowest one (288C). The heat of combustion
of each oil was estimated from DTA curves, showing the highest value for the olive oil. Except for corn oil, which presents
a significantly different thermal decomposition behavior than the other oils, a perfect linear correlation is observed, with
negative slope, between the heat of combustion of an oil and its respective extrapolated onset temperature of decomposition