The oldest textual variant of the Russian religious folk song “Forty pilgrims and one more pilgrim” dates from the mid-eighteenth century. The song is a special type of apology, produced by pilgrims for their own laudation and glorification, with the intention to raise the respect of people for them. The wife of the Grand Prince of Kiev wanted to commit adultery with the spiritual leader of the pilgrims, for which God punished her with a severe disease, most probably with leper. The symptoms of the wife’s disease and the circumstances of her recovery indicate that the pneuma-theory, the most ancient concept of the origin of diseases, was familiar to the Russians. In connection to the religious songs analyzed in my paper I found medical practices similar to those in Hungarian folk culture and in the ancient medicine of the Lamaist Tibet. On the basis of this, it can be claimed that the disease of the wife of the Grand Prince was caused by some internal or external “evil wind”. Consequently, the treatment was connected to the wind as well.
A number of authors have claimed that Potebnja's linguistic theory contains evident traces of Kantian influences. In the field of epistemology, indeed, both Potebnja and Kant were convinced relativists, and a number of philosophical notions commonly associated with Kant's doctrine are easily found in Potebnja's works. On the other hand, direct references to Kant are extremely rare in Potebnja's writings. In fact, according to Potebnia, the central problem of linguistics and philosophy was that of interrelation between language and thought, which had been practically ignored by Kant. A possible approach to the question of Potebnja's supposed Kantianism implies the existence of intermediary sources instrumental in conveying some Kantian elements into Potebnja's own theory (Humboldt, Herbart, Steinthal, etc.). Indeed, some scholars tend to regard the whole philosophy of language of German Romanticism and its psychologically-tinged positivist continuation as a sort of response to the problems left unresolved by Kant.Potebnjadid receive some important stimuli this way, although they rather concerned the formulation of the problems than their solution. The main points of Potebnja's discord with Kant concern the existence of a priori mental contents, the role of language in the transformation of sensorial data into concepts, the (non-)arbitrariness of the linguistic sign, the nature of linguistic communication, etc. Potebnja's treatment of the distinction between synthetic and analytic judgments, as well as of their function in the formation of concepts, where Kantian echoes are particularly evident, offers a particularly good example of the wide theoretical distance separating both authors.
Rosenthal (Boulder, CO - New York: East European Monographs, distributed by Columbia University Press, 1998), 207-218.
For a more extensive treatment see Wolfgang Wippermann, Wessen Schuld? Vom Historikerstreit zur Goldhagen
Summary Initially, the paper “Ethnic Stereotypes in the Macedonian Folklore and their Reflection in the Macedonian Contemporary Literature' is focusing on the ethnic stereotypes in folklore, knowing that it often reflects the historical reality in a fuller, more penetrating way than the other sources. In the Macedonian folklore, the positive image and the epic glorification of the Macedonian heroes are opposed to the manifested negative judgments about Others (mostly Turks and Arabs), often based upon ethnic stereotypes. The treatment of the motifs and the characters in them are quite typicalized and even overproportioned by frequent usage of hyperbolas and contrasts. The paper presents Bolen Dojcin and Marko Krale as typical heroes whose images succumb to stereotyping and the Crna Arapina as the perfect depiction of their enemy. These folklore images and stereotypes have significant implications and reflections in the Macedonian contemporary literature, especially in the poetry, so in the major part of the paper it deals mostly with these expressions. One of the main reasons for the usage of these “old-fashioned' stereotypes is to provoke familiar images in the people's minds (both good and evil), and to use this touch of the tradition as a base for the new ideas and poetry innovations. This paper pursues their transformations in the contemporary poetry of a few Macedonian authors, such as Blaze Koneski, Vlada Urosevic, Radovan Pavlovski and others. We read their poetry as intertext, namely as restoration and resemantisation of the traditional oral poetry, and we follow up the modifications done in their composition, versification and basic poetry idea. Apart from the poetry, these images and stereotypes taken from the Macedonian folklore can be noted in the other genres of the Macedonian contemporary literature, who enclose rereading of the ethnic stereotypes, upgrading of mythical fables, unconventional, unconditional and often very complexed usage of the folklore elements, symbols, myths or motifs. The paper leads to the conclusion that Macedonian folklore accumulates knowledge and image of the Other, but at the same time abounds with ethnical stereotypes. In the text, they were viewed through their manifestations and their alterations mainly in contemporary Macedonian poetry, through a number of paradigms and poetic concepts, highlighting their ability to make use of the spirit of the tradition as fundamentals for the fresh ideas and expressive innovations.
The paper discusses the possible analyses of the behaviour of [h] and [x] in Hungarian. It argues that in a derivational, rule-based framework two types of analyses are possible: one that assumes two separate underlying segments, /x/ and /h/, and thus misses the generalisation that the two segments are in complementary distribution, a typical characteristic of allophones. The second kind of approach argues that [h] and [x] come from the same underlying segment; this type of analysis can be further divided into two subtypes. According to one of these, the underlying segment is /h/. To be able to derive the attested output forms, three separate strengthening rules must be posited, an obvious disadvantage. The other possible approach, on the other hand, argues that the underlying segment is always /x/ weakened into a [h] in onsets and deleted in a group of lexically marked words by a minor rule. Besides, we also consider the behaviour of H-type segments in voice assimilation: they trigger but do not undergo that process. Siptár and Törkenczy (2000) suggest that if a filter disallowing surface voiced dorsal fricatives is proposed, then the desired result is obtained. While such a filter is an ad hoc device in rule-based theories, it is an organic part of a solution in Optimality Theory (OT), which argues that both /h/ and /x/ may occur in the input and the constraint hierarchy must be such that they should always select well-formed output candidates as optimal regardless of the input. As a result of this and Lexicon Optimization (LO), non-alternating forms will have /h/ or /x/ in their underlying representation depending on the output forms while alternating forms may have an underlying /x/ or /h/ as a result of the alternation sensitive LO (Inkelas 1994). Finally, we will show that the treatment of the behaviour of /x/ or /h/ in voice assimilation is simple in OT if we assume the constraint proposed by Siptár and Törkenczy (2000), prohibiting voiced dorsal fricatives, which, interacting with the ones suggested by Petrova et al. (2001), will be able to select the actual surface form as optimal in all cases.
Pléh, Csaba — Farrel Ackermann — András Komlósi 1989. On the psycholinguistics of preverbal modifiers in Hungarian: Adult intuitions and children’s treatment of modifiers. In: Folia Linguistica (Acta Societatis Linguistica Eurpaeae) 23: 181
Joachim von Watt (Ioachimus Vadianus) kommentárja, amely az első tudományos igényű Mela-kommentárnak tekinthető, elsőként 1518-ban jelent meg. Előzményének Ermolao Barbaro velencei humanista Castigationes Plinianae et in Pomponium Melam című filológiai kommentárját tekinthetjük. A lemmák vizsgálata során az ókori és a kora újkori uralkodóportrék két csoportját különíthetjük el, a jó és a rossz királyokét, illetve császárokét. A kommentárnak ez az olvasata az antik mű új tartalommal való felruházására irányuló törekvést példázza, amelynek során a lemmaíró Vadianus a korabeli olvasó számára hasznos ismereteket kíván közvetíteni. Ez az olvasat Vadianus későbbi munkájában, a Sankt Gallenben írt Epitome trium terrae partiumban már nem jelenik meg, ami bizonyítja a kommentár uralkodóképében rejlő propagandisztikus célokat. A rossz és jó uralkodók legkiemelkedőbb példái Nagy Sándor és I. (Jagelló) Zsigmond, a többi uralkodó e két pólus között helyezkedik el. Az ókor rossz uralkodóinak bemutatásakor Vadianus az ókori toposzokat követi: olvashatunk Neróról és Caliguláról, de a lemmákban rossz uralkodóként szerepel a késő római Pertinax császár is. A helvét humanista utóbbit erkölcsi szempontból ítéli el, bár a Historia Augusta leírásában nem szerepelnek az általa leírt morális aspektusok. Az antikvitás jó uralkodói, Antoninus Pius és Marcus Aurelius is erkölcsi szempontból kiemelkedőek Vadianus számára, azonban a modern uralkodók tekintetében a morális jó tulajdonságok mellett a hadi jártasság is a jó uralkodó ismérve. Véleménye szerint a jó uralkodó képes a kettőt összeegyeztetni egymással, és emellett emberi vonásait is megőrizni, ahogy I. Miksa és I. Zsigmond is.
sources and an extensive literature on the formation and character of Hungarian national consciousness. For the sake of simplicity, I mention here only one, which is both a treatment and a source, since it contains studies by greatest authorities and the