Search Results

You are looking at 111 - 120 of 181 items for :

  • "Humic acid" x
  • All content x
Clear All

Abstract  

A new method for the possible incorporation of nuclear wastes has been attempted here by using ceramic matrix of TiO2 as a host precursor for confinement. Hafnium is used as a simulant for actinide high-level waste. After incorporating 181Hf tracer into TiO2 matrix, the leaching property of the resulting matrix was studied in water, sodium chloride and humic acid solutions. The leaching was measured in each of the case by following the radioactivity of 181Hf. TiO2 matrix has also been exposed to γ-radiation in order to simulate the radiation field for nuclear waste. It has been investigated with a nuclear technique called time differential perturbed Angular Correlation (TDPAC) that the lattice structure of titania remains undisturbed even under a strong radiation field. The leaching of 181Hf has also been studied after irradiating the TiO2 matrix with γ-radiation and the leaching behavior was observed not to change from that before irradiation.

Restricted access

The thermal behaviour of humic acids and their sodium salts in oxygen has been studied. The sodium humates were prepared by neutralization of humic acids or by dialysis of their pseudosolutions in sodium hydroxide. Infrared and X-ray diffraction spectra of samples taken between the dissociation steps obtained from the DTA-TG-DTG curves suggest a double mechanism. Below 500°, sodium carbonate and carbon are formed. At 600°, the dissociation of carbonate starts. The residual carbon burns at once at 770°. The extent of reaction changes with the amount of sodium initially present.

Restricted access

Abstract  

A landfill leachate sample was radiolyzed with γ-rays at 12.5, 25, 50, 100, 200 and 400 kGy. The radiolyzed solutions were studied by UV–VIS–NIR spectroscopy to measure the color change, by chemical oxygen demand (COD) analysis to check the degree of mineralization of the soluble organic matter present in the leachate and by FT–IR spectroscopy of the humic substance of the leachate. The results have shown that the humic substance present in the landfill leachate is extremely refractory to radiolysis: even at 400 kGy it was detected and recovered only with minor changes. It is shown that the radiolysis followed by ozonolysis is able to cause important improvements of the leachate color and important reduction on the COD. However, the results in terms of bleaching and COD abatement after radiolysis and ozonolysis of the leachate can be achieved directly by a simple exhaustive ozonolysis of the leachate. The structural changes occurring in the humic substances and in the humic acids present in the leachate after radiolysis and ozonolysis were analyzed by FT–IR spectroscopy.

Restricted access

Abstract  

The sorption of radiocadmium on Ca-montmorillonite as a function of contact time, pH, ionic strength, foreign ions, humic acid (HA) and fulvic acid (FA) was studied using batch technique. The results demonstrated that the sorption of Cd(II) was dependent on ionic strength at pH < 9, and was independent of ionic strength at pH > 9. Outer-sphere surface complexation and/or ion exchange were the main mechanism of Cd(II) sorption on Ca-montmorillonite at low pH, whereas the sorption at high pH was mainly dominated via inner-sphere surface complexation. The sorption of Cd(II) on Ca-montmorillonite was dependent on foreign ions at low pH values, but was independent of foreign ions at high pH values. A positive effect of HA/FA on Cd(II) sorption was found at low pH values, whereas a negative effect was observed at high pH values. The thermodynamic parameters (i.e., ΔH 0, ΔS 0, ΔG 0) were calculated from the temperature dependent sorption isotherms, and the results indicated that the sorption process of Cd(II) on Ca-montmorillonite was spontaneous and endothermic.

Restricted access

Abstract  

Herein, the sorption properties of Eu(III) on Na-attapulgite were performed by using batch sorption experiments under different experimental conditions, such as contact time, pH, ionic strength, humic acid and temperatures. The results indicated that the sorption of Eu(III) on Na-attapulgite was strongly dependent on pH and temperature. At low pH values, the sorption of Eu(III) was influenced by ionic strength, whereas the sorption was not affected by ionic strength at high pH values. The sorption of Eu(III) was mainly dominated by ion exchange or outer-sphere surface complexation at low pH values, and by inner-sphere surface complexation or surface precipitation at high pH values. The sorption of Eu(III) onto Na-attapulgite increased with increasing temperature. The Langmuir and Freundlich models were applied to simulate the sorption isotherms, and the results indicated that the Langmuir model simulated the sorption isotherms better than the Freundlich model. The thermodynamic parameters (∆G o, ∆S o, ∆H o) were calculated from the temperature dependent sorption isotherms at 293, 313 and 333 K, respectively, and the results indicated that the uptake of Eu(III) on Na-attapulgite was an endothermic and spontaneous process. The results of high Eu(III) sorption capacity on Na-attapulgite suggest that the attapulgite is a suitable material for the preconcentration and immobilization of Eu(III) ions from large volumes of aqueous solutions.

Restricted access

Abstract  

The ammonium citrate tribasic was successfully modified to attapulgite clay and the effect of modifying was characterized by FTIR and XRD techniques. Experimental results showed that the ammonium citrate tribasic modified attapulgite clay had a strong sorption ability to remove Th(IV) from aqueous solutions. The sorption of Th(IV) from aqueous solutions has been systematically investigated as a function of several variables including contact time, solid content, pH, ionic strength, Fulvic acid (FA)/humic acid (HA) and temperature under ambient conditions. The results indicate that the sorption of Th(IV) onto ammonium citrate tribasic modified attapulgite clay is strongly dependent on pH, Th(IV) initial concentration, ionic strength, temperature and HA/FA. Surface complexation and ionic exchange are the main sorption mechanisms. Sorption of Th(IV) onto ammonium citrate tribasic modified attapulgite is quick and can be fitted by a pseudo-second-order rate model very well. Sorption of Th(IV) onto ammonium citrate tribasic modified attapulgite is promoted at higher temperature and the sorption reaction is an endothermic process. Langmuir isotherm model fits the experimental data better than Freundlich and D-R isotherm models. The results suggest that the ammonium citrate tribasic modified attapulgite sample is a suitable material in the preconcentration and solidification of radionuclide Th(IV) from large volumes of aqueous solutions.

Restricted access

Abstract  

A novel γ-MnO2 hollow structure has been synthesized using a simple chemical reaction between MnSO4 and KMnO4 in aqueous solution without using any templates, surfactants, catalysts, calcination and hydrothermal processes. As an example of potential applications, γ-MnO2 hollow structure was used as adsorbent in radionuclide 60Co(II) treatment, and showed an excellent ability. The effect of pH, contact time, ionic strength, humic acid (HA)/fulvic acid (FA), and temperature was investigated using batch techniques. The results indicated that the sorption of 60Co(II) on γ-MnO2 was obviously dependent on pH values but independent of ionic strength. The presence of HA/FA enhanced the sorption of 60Co(II) on γ-MnO2 at low pH, whereas reduced 60Co(II) sorption on γ-MnO2 at high pH. The kinetic sorption of 60Co(II) on γ-MnO2 can be well fitted by the pseudo-second-order rate equation. The thermodynamic parameters (ΔH 0, ΔS 0, ΔG 0) were also calculated from the temperature dependent sorption isotherms, and the results suggested that the sorption of 60Co(II) on γ-MnO2 was a spontaneous and endothermic process. The sorption of 60Co(II) on γ-MnO2 was attributed to surface complexation rather than ion exchange.

Restricted access

Abstract  

A novel hierarchically structured γ-MnO2 has been synthesized using a simple chemical reaction between MnSO4 and KMnO4 in aqueous solution without using any templates, surfactants, catalysts, calcination and hydrothermal processes. As an example of potential applications, hierarchically structured γ-MnO2 was used as adsorbent in radionuclide 63Ni(II) treatment, and showed an excellent ability. The effects of pH, ionic strength, temperature, humic acid (HA) and fulvic acid (FA) on the sorption of radionuclide 63Ni(II) to hierarchically structured γ-MnO2 have been investigated by using batch techniques. The results indicated that the sorption of 63Ni(II) on γ-MnO2 is obviously dependent on pH values but independent of ionic strength. The presence of HA/FA strongly enhances the sorption of 63Ni(II) on γ-MnO2 at low pH values, whereas reduces 63Ni(II) sorption at high pH values. The sorption of 63Ni(II) on γ-MnO2 is attributed to inner-sphere surface complexation rather than outer-sphere surface complexation or ion exchange. The thermodynamic parameters (ΔH 0, ΔS 0, ΔG 0) are also calculated from the temperature dependent sorption isotherms, and the results suggest that the sorption of 63Ni(II) on γ-MnO2 is a spontaneous and endothermic process.

Restricted access

Abstract  

Bentonite has been studied extensively because of its strong sorption and complexation ability. Herein, GMZ bentonite from Gaomiaozi county (Inner Mongolia, China) was investigated as the candidate of backfill material for the removal of Th(IV) ions from aqueous solutions. The results indicate that the sorption of Th(IV) is strongly dependent on pH and ionic strength at pH < 5, and independent of ionic strength at pH > 5. Outer-sphere surface complexation or ion-exchange are the main mechanism of Th(IV) sorption on GMZ bentonite at low pH values, whereas the sorption of Th(IV) at pH > 5 is mainly dominated by inner-sphere surface complexation or surface precipitation. Soil fulvic acid (FA) and humic acid (HA) have a positive influence on the sorption of Th(IV) on bentonite at pH < 5. The different addition sequences of HA and Th(IV) to GMZ bentonite suspensions have no obvious effect on Th(IV) sorption to HA-bentonite hybrids. The high sorption capacity of Th(IV) on GMZ bentonite suggests that the GMZ bentonite can remove Th(IV) ions from large volumes of aqueous solutions in real work.

Restricted access

Abstract  

During this work highly particle reactive nature of thorium was exploited for the separation of Th from aquatic stream containing U/Th. The Kd value of Th(IV) ions is 106 which is two order of magnitude higher than uranium (IV & VI). Laboratory simulated experiments were conducted to study the preferential removal of thorium by using siliceous material having particle size of about 2,000 μm. Siliceous material was prepared by decomposing the organic layer on soil particles by giving treatment with HNO3 and H2O2. Experimental solutions were generated by spiking the surface water with Th (NO3)4 and UO2(NO3)2. Experimental results shows preferential uptake of Th compared to U by siliceous material. This association is further improved by coating the siliceous material with high and low molecular weight organic materials i.e. humic and fulvic acid, respectively. Characterization of the organic material was done by ATR–FTIR whereas determination of Th was done by ICP-OES and alpha spectrometry. Experimental results clearly showed that Th and U sorption capacity is 1 and 0.3 μg mg−1 (w/w), respectively, in case of siliceous material. Thorium sorption is increased five and eight times in the case of coating with fulvic acid and humic acid, respectively. Whereas the same does not shows any pronounced impact on sorption of uranium.

Restricted access