Authors:Robert K. Abercrombie, Akaninyene W. Udoeyop, and Bob G. Schlicher
respect to different countries over time. For example, the United States, China, South Korea and Japan exhibit patent spurts indicative of both positive and negative (±) correlations.
Number of patents per
that belong to the European Southern Observatory, or both); 255 came from other prosperous countries (Japan, Canada, Australia, Israel, New Zealand), and 230 from less prosperous countries (China, India, Taiwan, Hong Kong, Korea, Mexico, Chile, Brazil
Table 4 shows the distribution of countries with patents that have been cited by enterprises in HSP. The results show that the main knowledge sources are the United States and Japan, followed by South Korea, which is at a similar stage of industrial
Authors:Md. Dulal Hossain, Junghoon Moon, Hyoung Goo Kang, Sung Chul Lee, and Young Chan Choe
prevailing in all systems. A similar conclusion made by Park et al. ( 2005 ) in a Korean case. Nevertheless, an unintentional effect of these policies has been the destruction of national co-authorship relations spanning institutional boundaries. On the other
citations to foreign countries, it is possible to distinguish the particular country, i.e. Hu and Jaffe ( 2003 ) find that the Koreas’ knowledge base relies more on Japanese than the US knowledge, whereas Taiwan's knowledge base draws on knowledge from both