harm” the sufferer with their threat, that person was a witch: “persons that bring harm to the innocent by threats (…) after many threats, harming and bewitching many innocent, god-fearing people in their person and their belongings and animals, or in
likewise. He extends his arms and starts after the Girl.The Girl flees, - the Mandarin in her footsteps - his eyes fixed on her - his face distorted and begging like that of a sick animal.A chase begins. Bartók’s Hungarian word for the “chase,” “hajsza,” is
Authors:Szabolcs Czifra, Attila Kreiter, Éva Kovács-Széles, Mária Tóth, Orsolya Viktorik, and Beáta Tugya
pitcher goes so long to the well… Iron Age wells from the outskirts of Békéscsaba) . BMMK 30 ( 2007 ) 111 – 150 .
Bóka–Tugya 2007 = G. Bóka – B. Tugya : Egy békéscsabai szkíta kút állatcsontleletei (Animal bone finds of a Scythian well in
The present paper examines the origin of two Tocharian animal names, assuming that they were borrowed from an oriental source. The Common Tocharian term for ‘poisonous snake, viper’ (Toch. A ārṣal, B arṣāklo) reproduces exactly the Turkic name *arsala:n ‘lion’, whereas the Tocharian B partākto ‘camel’ seems to represent a loanword from East Iranian *pardāk(u)-tā (pl.) ‘leopards’ (perhaps created by a contamination with Altaic *aktan- ‘a castrated animal’). The phonetic aspects of both derivations are unquestionable. The semantic differences may be explained by the fact that Proto-Tocharians borrowed names of two unknown exotic animals and later they wrongly identified the word with different animals, transferring the Turkish name for ‘lion’ into ‘poisonous snake, viper’ and the Iranian name for ‘leopard’ into ‘camel’. The same process is perfectly attested in Slavonic (e.g. Polish słoń ‘elephant’ < Turkish (dial.) aslan ‘lion’; Pol. wielbłąd ‘camel’ < Greek elephas, -antos ‘elephant’) and many other languages.
Research from Luzhnica and Nishava].
Srpski etnografski zbornik
, M. Vladimir 1928: Životinje u narodnim pričama (iz Pirotskog okruga) [Animals in Folk Narratives in the Pirot Region].
Whodunnit? — Disturbed graves in early medieval cemeteries
. Graves disturbed in antiquity are a common feature in any period in which inhumation burial was practised. Disturbances of early medieval graves are often interpreted as human interference. Excavations at the Langobardic-period cemetery at Szólád (Kom. Somogy) in 2005–2007, however, indicated that the role of burrowing animals should not be underestimated. Excellent soil conditions demonstrated that at least 10% of the graves were disturbed by burrowing animals whose activities displaced bones and grave-goods. In this particular case, badgers, who are known to inhabit warrens for several generations and for extending them to a depth of 5 metres, are the most likely suspects.