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Abstract  

Calorimetry may be considered like a technique of nuclear measurement. Associated with gammametry, it can insure the management of nuclear material emitting α, β and γ rays. The gamma spectrometer using a high purety germanium detector can describe the isotopic composition of the sample and the differential calorimeter with thermopile measure the equivalent heating from the nuclear properties of these isotopes.

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Abstract  

Activated carbons (AC), particularly those containing sulphur, are effective adsorbents for mercury (Hg) vapour at elevated temperatures. Activated carbon-based technologies are expected to become a major part of the strategy for controlling mercury emission from coal-fired power plants. Understanding the mechanism of mercury adsorption on sulphur impregnated activated carbons (SIAC) is essential to optimizing activated carbons for better mercury removal efficiency and to developing technologies for the handling of the spent AC. In this work thermal analysis before and after mercury uptake was carried out for the SIAC prepared under various conditions from oil-sand petroleum coke using a simultaneous differential thermal analyzer. Samples were heated at 20°C min−1 under nitrogen in the temperature range from ambient to 1000°C. The DSC curves suggest both endothermic and exothermic changes during heating. The endothermic processes were attributed to evaporation of moisture and other volatile components. The exothermic processes existed in a wide temperature range of 150–850°C likely due to the oxidation reactions between carbon and adsorbed oxygen, oxygen-containing surface groups. The enthalpies of liquid mercury interaction with SIAC at different Hg/AC mass ratio were also measured at 30, 40 and 50°C using a differential scanning calorimeter. The combination of thermal analysis and calorimetry techniques enabled confirmation that the interaction of mercury with SIAC involves both physical and chemical processes.

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Abstract  

The freezing and melting of water in semi-dilute (0.5–3.0%) solutions of the polysaccharide hyaluronanhave been investigated by modulated differential scanning calorimetry.High molecular weight hyaluronan inhibited nucleation of ice and significantly depressed thefreezing temperature in a dynamic scan conducted at –3.0°C min–1. Low molecular weight hyaluronan had a weaker and more variable effect on nucleation. Theeffects on nucleation, especially by the high molecular weight hyaluronan, are attributed tothe influence of a hyaluronan network on the formation of critical ice nuclei.Both high and low molecular weight hyaluronan reduced the melting temperature of ice by 0.4–1.1°C, depending on concentration. The enthalpy change associated with this transitionwas significantly reduced. If all of the enthalpy difference is attributed to the presence of non-freezing water, approximately 3.65 g water/g hyaluronan would be non-freezing. This result appears incompatible with published studies on hyaluronan samples of low water content. An alternative hypothesis and quantitative approach to analysis of the data are suggested. The data are interpreted in terms of a small amount of non-freezing water, and amuch larger boundary layer of water surrounding hyaluronan chains, which has slightly altered thermodynamic properties relative to those of bulk water. The boundary layer water behaves similarly to water trapped in small pores in solid materials and hydrogels.

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Abstract  

The enthalpies of formation of 13 calcium silicates, aluminates, alumino-silicates and ferro-alumino-silicates were measured by dissolution calorimetry with the help of a high-temperature Calvet calorimeter. Dissolution experiments were performed in a lead metaborate (2PbO−B2O3) baths at 1173 K. The synthesis of the samples was realized by melting together pure silica, alumina, ferric oxide and calcium carbonate in appropriate ratios. The samples obtained in this way were examined by X-ray diffraction and scanning electronic microscopy. The free lime content was also determined by chemical analysis. The enthalpy of formation of silicates and aluminates obeys two different linear relations with respect to the ratio Ca/X (X=Al or/and Si) except for Ca12Al14O33 which does not exist in its pure form but has to be stabilized by anions as OH or Cl. The data corresponding to the two aluminosilicates are located between these lines. The enthalpy of formation of tricalcium silicate (Ca3SiO5 i.e. C3S according to the Bogue terminology) from dicalcium silicate and lime could be calculated as −6kJ·mol−1. This reaction is the most important one in the industrial process of clinkerization.

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Abstract  

The standard molar enthalpy of formation of crystalline di-isobutyldithiocarbamate complexes of P, As, Sb and Bi(III) has been derived by solution calorimetry at 298.15 K. The corresponding standard molar enthalpies of sublimation were estimated by means of differential scanning calorimetry. From the standard molar enthalpies of formation of the gaseous chelates the homolytic and heterolytic mean metal-sulphur bond-dissociation enthalpies were calculated.

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Abstract  

Traditionally, the kinetic treatment of adiabatic calorimetry data has been based on the results of one or more experiments, but always with the assumption of the kinetic model that the reaction follows to calculate the kinetic parameters. In this paper a method for the determination of the activation energy that uses a set of adiabatic calorimetry data is developed. To check the method, the thermal decompositions of two peroxides were studied.

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Thermodynamic investigations of Ga-GeSb0.855 section in the ternary system Ga-Ge-Sb, which is of a practical importance in electric-industry, are presented in this paper. Results of a comparative thermodynamic analysis at 1273 K obtained by Oelsen calorimetry and predicting methods - general solution model and Hajra's method are also given.

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Abstract  

Adsorption isotherms of n-butane on a granulated activated carbon were measured by two different but complementary experimental methods: calorimetry and gravimetry. Adsorption heats were determined in different ways. For the system studied, the experimental results prove that the adsorbent offers a homogeneous site distribution. Besides, there can be differences between the adsorption heat values which might come from the way they are obtained (by calculation or direct measurements).

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Abstract  

The enthalpies of mixing of liquid Gd-Si (17705 K) and Al-Gd (17605 K) alloys have been measured by high-temperature isoperibolic calorimetry. The calorimetric study of the gadolinium-based liquid alloys demonstrates the great negative enthalpies of mixing, which is associated with the contribution of GdSi and GdAl2 intermetallides into the liquid-state thermodynamics. The comparison of obtained results with literature data has been performed.

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Abstract  

Differential scanning calorimetry was used to study the stability of omeprazole in two forms: granules and powder. The drug was subjected to light, elevated temperature (40 and 60�C) and different pH values. The greatest alterations in stability were caused by pH, followed by light.

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