The aim of the study was to evaluate the effect of the artificial inoculation of barley kernels and leaves with a suspension of spores and mycelium of species belonging to the genera Ascochyta, Bipolaris, Drechslera and Fusarium. The following procedures were applied: inoculation of kernels germinating on blotting paper, inoculation of kernels germinating in the soil and spraying of young barley plants. Intensity of the occurring disease symptoms depended on the fungal species used and the method of inoculation. All genera of fungi used for inoculation of kernels on blotting paper statistically significantly reduced the percentage of germinated kernels. In the case of inoculation of kernels sown in the soil, emergence rates of barley plants were statistically significantly reduced only by B. sorokiniana (22.5–70%) and Fusarium sp. (5–55%), the control 92.5–95%. The use of B. sorokiniana in the inoculation of young barley plants caused spots (30–60% of infected plants), which were not observed in species from the other genera.
Authors:Carlo Pazzini, Parviz Ahmad-Nejad, and Beniam Ghebremedhin
The multidrug resistance of bacteria causing life-threatening infections is a continuously increasing problem for every nation's health care system [ 1 , 2 ]. In particular, the combat against pathogens of the
]. The relevance of anaerobic bacteria as pathogens has been described from basically all anatomical areas, these infections may be divided into two main groups: exogenous or “classical” infections (botulism, gas gangrene, lockjaw) are predominantly
Iraqi Freedom and Operation Enduring Freedom in the first decade of the present century, MRSA was among the three most frequently isolated multidrug-resistant pathogens associated with nosocomial infection rates less than 5% [ 2 ].
Authors:Ingrid E. Pereira, Kyssia P. Silva, Laura M. Menegati, Aimara C. Pinheiro, Elaine A. O. Assunção, Maria De Lourdes P. Araújo, Elfadil Abass, Malcolm S. Duthie, Ulrich Steinhoff, and Henrique C. Teixeira
L. infantum . The danger of transmission of VL from dogs to men is high due to their proximity, the susceptibility of dogs to VL infection and the high prevalence of asymptomatic dogs [ 3 ]. Canine visceral leishmaniasis (CVL) is a systemic disease