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Abstract  

In this study, instances where thermal analysis techniques (differential scanning calorimetry, thermogravimetry, differential thermal analysis, etc.) have been applied for fossil fuel characterisation and kinetics are reviewed. The scientific results presented clearly showed that thermal analysis is a well-established technique used in fossil fuel research area. The literature survey showed that thermal methods were important not only theoretically but also from a practical point of view.

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In this Section of the journal, the literature on continuous flow synthesis (primarily organic synthesis and functional materials) from the period of April — June 2016 is presented. All the publications are listed ordered by journal name, with a Review article appearing at the end. In this quarter the number of papers on continuous flow organic synthesis is relatively less as a few special issues are forthcoming. It is interesting to observe that the number of papers on continuous flow oxidation are more than ever before!

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In this Section of the journal, the literature on continuous flow synthesis (primarily organic synthesis and functional materials) from the period of July – September 2016 is presented. All the publications are listed ordered by journal name, with 8 Review articles appearing at the end. In this quarter the number of papers on continuous flow organic synthesis is relatively more and with a few special issues planned in the coming months this number will increase significantly. There are many ‘firsts’ achieved in flow synthesis in the last quarter, but the most noticeable ones include the synthesis of Water-Stable Covalent Organic Frameworks and flow synthesis using in-situ generated chlorine!

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In this Section of the journal, the literature on continuous flow synthesis (primarily organic synthesis and functional materials) from the period of October — December 2016 is presented. All the publications are listed ordered by journal name, with two Review articles appearing at the end. In this quarter the number of papers on continuous flow organic synthesis is relatively less as a few special issues are planned in the coming months. Two contributions on machine learning for optimization in flow synthesis and the scale-up of continuous flow reactors from Eli Lilly are the real highlights of this quarter!

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In this section of the journal, the literature on continuous-flow synthesis (primarily organic synthesis and functional materials) from the period of January–March 2015 is presented. All the publications are listed and ordered by journal name, with review articles grouped at the end. This time, there is no section on highlighted articles; however, from the next issue, a succinct overview of specific publications will be included in this section. From the next issue, some publications having engineering principles relevant to flow synthesis will also be included in this list with specific highlights that will give new insights on flow synthesis.

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In this section of the journal, the literature on continuous-flow synthesis (primarily organic synthesis and functional materials) from the period of July to September 2015 is presented. All the publications are listed and ordered by journal name, with a few review articles appearing at the end. With a few special issues related to flow synthesis and advances in organic process development, the number of publications on flow synthesis has grown steadily in this period. This also shows the growing interest of the community in adapting to flow synthesis.

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Abstract  

The applicability of the INIS database for literature retrieval on nuclear-related analytical techniques [e.g. neutron activation analysis (NAA), X-ray fluorescence (XRF), particle-induced X-ray emission (PIXE)] has been studied. There exist about 9700 documents on NAA and other forms of activation analysis, about 3500 documents on XRF and about 1200 documents on PIXE in the database collected from 1976 until July 1988. They cover a variety of elements and matrices in the fields of biology, geochemistry and the physical sciences. Some technical notes and comments on the practical use of this database are also included.

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Abstract  

A cross-sectional examination of the fisheries literature for 1978 was made to see how language use patterns were related to communicating research information. An analysis of 884 articles indicated that despite the dominance of English as an international communicative medium, there was a strong national language usage pattern. National language usage was not confined to local fisheries problems, but cut across issues of international importance. For most of the articles the language of publication was directly predictable from the first author's country of residence. However the mismatch between these variables for about six percent of the sample suggested the need for a detailed study of individual cases.

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Abstract  

Influence is a widespread and well-documented and widely acknowledged practice in the Western literary tradition, but there has been a flat denial that it exists among African writers. The very fact that a controversy should arise at all as to whether the readership of African writing lies within Africa itself says something about how a different standard is always applied when it comes to things African. Along with fame and fortune, the perception that one’s work could ignite the creative spark for others both in one’s immediate surroundings and afar continues to provide writers worldwide the incentive to keep honoring their calling, in part, because leaving a legacy of hope and inspiration is every writer’s dream. While common sense ought to suggest that the situation of Africa cannot be any different—after all, as a familiar African proverb has it, “it takes a village to raise a child”—the notion of artistic production as a communal affair has continued to be widely thought to be inapplicable to Africa. Why has it become convenient to argue that dialogue of an indigenous nature, as a mode of creative interaction and invention, is absent in contemporary African literature? To take up that question, our argument in this essay proceeds in three interlocking steps. First is an overview of the role professional readers, literary analysts, and scholars have ascribed to literary inheritance in the development of expressive power universally. Next is an attempt to adduce reasons for the persistent regime of denial that over time has established itself firmly in discussions of African writing concerning suggestions of a preoccupation, conceived expansively as disposition, style, thematic engagement, stance, and sensibility, which an informed observer might take as emanating from inspiration of a local origin. The final section makes the case that proper identification and recognition of the conventions of this indigenous literary source would unquestionably provide the best approach to understanding contemporary African literature and stimulating admiration for the creative temper involved in its writing as the case of contemporary African literature cannot be an exception.

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Summary  

The period since unification has seen a new era opening up for Sorbian literature. After the establishment of the tradition of bilingual writing in the GDR it has entered an uncertain, but more open relationship with German culture. It has also entered a post-national world, in which the old national limitations no longer apply. Despite some writers insisting on writing only in Sorbian it is difficult to see how it can go back to being a purely inward-looking literature ignoring the German-dominated cultural environment around it. The number of readers capable of reading in Sorbian is diminishing, and even for the majority of Sorbs who are literate in Sorbian, their major reading language will be German. It is only a minority, primarily the Catholic Sorbs, who will continue to read primarily in Sorbian. Several writers have shown possible paths for the future development of a specifically Sorbian contribution in which the connections between Sorbian and German culture are stressed, rather than the divisions between them, which does not necessarily mean a renunciation of a Sorbian identity, but a recognition of present-day realities.  It is nevertheless also true that for a number of Sorbian writers their role as providers of a particular focus for the articulation of concerns about the survival of the Sorbs as a distinct linguistic and cultural group will remain uppermost in their work.

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