The present essay is devoted to the various manifestations of transformation in Slavic literatures after 1989, when 300 million
Slavs found themselves in the cultural paradigm diametrically opposed to the communist one, but not quite what it was designed
to be by the dissidents and opposition members, i.e. advocates of civil society. This comparative panorama of Slavic literatures
is presented from the perspective of postmodern culture and philosophy (Lyotard, Bauman, Rorty, Prigogine, Foucault, Derrida
among others), legitimizing with its theories pluralism, the understanding of the multi-meaning nature of truth, the polyphony
of cultures, and the significance of all minorities for the spiritual development of humankind. On the basis of selected examples
from the literatures of West-, East- and South-Slavic countries, the author attempts to identify the crucial elements of transformation
of the social and literary self-awareness of different generations in the post-communist Slavic countries over the last fifteen
years. In the works of J. Topol, V. Pelevin, T. Rżewicz, D. Ugresić, T. Zabuzhko, or D. Bieńkowski she seeks an answer to
the question what was realized out of various dreams of a better and braver world of pluralism and democracy. How do the transformationers,
the transformed and the self-transforming “inhabitants” of the new reality recognize their social and ethical situation? Who
are, in light of literature, the heroes of our time, and what is behind the notion of “new sensitivity”? What does the so-called
“realcap” (real capitalism) mean in literature? And also, which spaces of freedom does the democratic system open for writers
and minorities, and which new worlds of imagination does it create in a search for metaphysical, mythical, thanatological,
religious and esoteric dimensions of human existence, constrained in the past by imposed, top-down atheism.
The Rusyn language in Slovakia was codified in 1995 on the basis of the country’s two most prevalent Rusyn dialects: East Zemplín and West Zemplín. From this perspective Rusyn is a relatively young Slavic language, and this despite its centuries-long history, which is marked by many conflicts concerning the question of a literary norm; the disputes concerning Rusyn have taken place on the territory of today’s Slovak Republic, as well as throughout all of historical Carpathian Rus. Any solutions concerning a Rusyn literary language were always connected to the question of the Rusyn minority’s ethnic identity [i.e. are they (Great) Russian, Ukrainian, or do they form a separate Slavic nationality?], and these issues were not possible to resolve until after 1989, when society began to enjoy new pluralistic conditions. Thus, the late twentieth-century codification of Rusyn on the basis of local dialects was the natural result of an expression of free will on the part of Rusyns, and a response to the dilemma of their ethnic identity. The codification of Rusyn became the basis for introducing the literary language into various public spheres in Slovakia – publishing and media, religious life, stage and theatre productions, and of course the literary world –, which had until 1995 used various forms of Rusyn dialects without applying standardized rules. The expansion of Rusyn into these spheres of life – especially into the educational system and government administration – required the existence of a standardized literary language. Thus, the implementation of literary Rusyn (in its written and spoken form) into the above-named spheres of life is an important step to guaranteeing the language’s further development.
Authors:Hans Kollenda, Hagen Frickmann, Rania Ben Helal, Dorothea Franziska Wiemer, Habiba Naija, Mohamed Sélim El Asli, Melanie Egold, Joachim Jakob Bugert, Susann Handrick, Roman Wölfel, Farouk Barguellil, and Mohamed Ben Moussa
Background: Carbapenem-resistance is frequently detected in Enterobacteriaceae isolated from patients in Tunisia. The study was performed to identify frequent carbapenemases in Tunisian isolates.
Methods: Between May 2014 and January 2018, 197 ertapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae were isolated at the microbiological department of the Military Hospital of Tunis. The strains were phenotypically characterized and then subjected to in-house polymerase chain reaction (PCR) targeting the carbapenemase genes blaIMP, blaVIM, blaNDM, blaSPM, blaAIM, blaDIM, blaGIM, blaSIM, blaKPC, blaBIC, and blaOXA-48.
Results: The assessed 197 ertapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae from Tunis comprised 170 Klebsiella pneumoniae, 19 Enterobacter cloacae, 6 Escherichia coli, 1 Citrobacter sedlakii, and 1 Enterobacter asburiae. Thereby, 55 out of 197 isolates (27.9%) were from blood cultures, suggesting a systemic disease. The carbapenemase gene blaOXA-48 quantitatively dominated by far with 153 detections, followed by blaNDM with 14 detections, which were distributed about the whole study interval. In contrast, blaBIC and blaVIM were only infrequently identified in 5 and 3 cases, respectively, while the other carbapenamases were not observed.
Conclusions: The carbapenemase gene blaOXA-48 was identified in the vast majority of ertapenem-resistant Tunisian Enterobacteriaceae while all other assessed carbapenemases were much less abundant. In a quantitatively relevant minority of isolates, the applied PCR-based screening approach did not identify any carbapenemases.
Shelley Berc's A Girl's Guide to The Divine Comedyis a reimagining of Dante Alighieri's Commedia as a late20th-century American play that makes telling points about contemporary culture. In part 1 a female Dante descends
into hell not to learn the nature of sin as her medieval counterpart does but to realize the depth of the female artist's
exile from the political and artistic life of the dominant, androcratic, culture. Part 2's satire inverts the medieval purgatorial
ascent with real-estate-agent Virgil and porn-star Beatrice trying to persuade Dante, now a male, to accept the culture's
money-based, celebrity-oriented values. Part 3 of each work culminates in a vision. One difference, however, is that whereas
the medieval vision is empyreal, the contemporary vision is terrestrial. A second difference is that the contemporary Dante,
a girl again, relates in a narrative the vision of community for which she was put to death. Understanding the penalty exacted
for a minority perception, she voluntarily returns to the underworld to give voice to other exiles.
This research was conducted on a sample of 840 respondents who represent half of the Croatian population of young scientists. There are three main features which define the publication productivity of young scientists. 1) Despite the worsened position of R & D, they publish more scientific papers than the young generations of scientists at the beginning of the nineties. 2) Differences between a highly-productive minority, which produces on average half of all scientific publications, and a low-productive majority is already apparent in young scientists. 3) The productivity of young scientists is formed according to productivity patterns typical of particular scientific fields and disciplines.With regard to the explanation of productivity, the following has been found. a) An expansion of the set of predictors resulted in an improvement in the explanation of the productivity of young scientists compared with previous surveys. b) Among the factors which contribute significantly to the explanation of the quantity of scientific publications, the most powerful predictor is attendance at conferences abroad, followed by scientific qualifications and some gatekeeping variables. c) Besides certain similarities, scientific fields also show a specific structure of determinants of young scientists' productivity.
The Shors are one of the minor indigenous Turkic peoples of Siberia the majority of whom are living in the Kemerovo Oblast’. The Shor language is a conglomeration of two basically very different northern Turkic dialects, identified by river names as Kondoma Shor (the southern dialect) and Mrass Shor (the northern dialect). The Mrass dialect belongs to the azaq[/taγlγ]-group, whereas the Kondoma dialect belongs to the [ayaq/]taγlγ-group. The Shor literary language was formed on the basis of the Mrass dialect in the 1920s but soon after its formation it suffered a decline from the late 1930s to the early 1990s due to the Soviet policy of assimilation of minorities. It is now a severely endangered language. In the present paper the month names in Shor (Mrass dialect) are treated. The material is based on the fieldwork study of the Altaic Society of Korea and the testimony of month names in the Shor dictionaries. Wherever necessary, these month names were also compared with those to be found in other Turkic languages.
The aim of this paper is to provide an overview of changing ethnic patterns in Transylvania since the fall of Communism in Romania in 1989. The ethnic structure of this multicultural province was dominated by Hungarians, Romanians and Germans from the early 13th century until the middle of 20th century and by Romanians, Hungarians and Roma since 1989. The natural decrease and the increasing (e)migration of the population associated with the economic, social and political changes of the epoch has led to considerable changes in the ethnic structure of Transylvania. The most striking ethnic changes are the accelerated decrease of the population of the national minorities (mostly of Germans and Hungarians) and the dynamic demographic growth of the Roma population. Nearly half of the Hungarians live in municipalities where they represent an absolute majority of the local population (e.g., the Székely land and parts of Bihor-Satu Mare-Sǎlaj counties). As a result of their dynamic increase (25% between 1992 and 2002), the Roma community might outnumber the Hungarians in the decade to come, becoming the second largest ethnic group (to the Romanians) of Transylvania (according to estimates and not census data).
In spite of the remarkable political mobilization and disciplined ethnic voting of the Hungarian minority in Romania, major political objectives, seen by the political elite of the community as critical for the cultural reproduction of Hungarians in Romania, have proven to be unreachable since 1989 through the instruments of participation in the country’s political life. The paper explores the historical and contemporary reasons that contributed to this failure, and identifies conditions that could trigger a change. Various political projects of the Hungarians in Transylvania seeking integration on their own terms into the Romanian state since 1920, together with the circumstances that lead to their failure, are critically assessed. Based on considerable research conducted between 1995 and 2006, conflicting identity structures and competing ethnopolitical strategies are identified that divide the Romanian political community along ethnic fault-lines. The consequences of the divide are evaluated from the perspective of normative political philosophy and an answer is offered to the question which refers to the grounds on which Hungarians in Transylvania could (or could not) be considered part of the Romanian political community. The paper concludes by identifying alternative ways out of the current situation.