Authors:A. Kisbenedek, Sz. Szabo, E. Polyak, Z. Breitenbach, A. Bona, L. Mark, and M. Figler
Oilseeds are very popular edibles that are often used to enhance the fibre content of baked goods, and specific types are used for preserving and seasoning. Polyphenol-related researches have been receiving growing attention in the last 20 years, especially the ones concentrating on stilbenoids. In previous studies, resveratrol concentrations have been determined from oilseeds such as peanut.The aim of our research was to define the composition of oilseeds with a focus on the bioactive compounds, more specifically the resveratrol.Research took place in 2010–2011 at the University of Pécs, Medical School, using non-random, convenience sampling. Oilseeds studied in the research were: sunflower seed, roasted peanut, un-roasted peanut, sesame seed, pumpkin seed, almond, linseed, bio white mustard seed, bio black mustard seed, mustard seed of foreign provenance, and wild black mustard seed. All of these oilseeds can be purchased from trade. Samples used in the research were obtained from the producers and collectors. High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) was used for the measurements.Summarising our results, it can be stated that each type of oilseed analysed in our research can be regarded as good sources of resveratrol. The highest level of resveratrol was detected in the sunflower seeds (0.00398±0.0001 mg g−1), almonds (0.00176±0.00021 mg g−1), roasted peanut (0.00206±0.00013 mg g−1), and wild black mustard seeds (0.0023±0.0007 mg g−1).
This paper reports on the results obtained with the pulsed nuclear magnetic resonance (P-NMR) technique applied for determining fat content in fresh meat. The interfering moisture content of meat was removed by microwave drying and the dried residue was quantitatively transferred into the P-NMR tubes. The total analysis time was about 50 min. Experiments were performed with rendered pure pork, beef and goose fats, sunflower oil and with lean pork - fat and lean beef - tallow mixtures (batters). The regression (prediction) equations (intensity of P-NMR signal vs. fat content determined with the Soxhlet reference method) of the sunflower oil and fat samples did not differ appreciably. Consequently, contrary to the results obtained with the CW-NMR technique, the variability of the fatty acid composition of the examined fats and oil had no substantial effect on the regression (prediction) equations in this case. On the other hand, there was a considerable difference between the regression lines of the lean pork-fat and lean beef-tallow mixtures. Therefore, due to the interfering effect of the non-fat dry matter and the type of meat on the intensity of P-NMR signal, this technique can only have a restricted practical application in the in-line process control of fat content of meats.
An instrumentation and a tracer technique has been employed for the investigation of root bioactivity in plants with injected
75Se in a study carried out under field conditions. The investigation was based on a previously developed instrumentation and
on findings that 75Se is preferably transferred within the root system to the active tissues of the injected plants. The root bioactivity was
investigated in corn and sunflower as subjected to different fertilization and irrigation treatments. The pattern of root
bioactivity varied with crop, time and treatment applied. The technique showed to be reliable and easy-to-use and the detection
equipment scanned the radioactivity along the soil profile with good accuracy. The described method has proved to be a useful
tool to study under field conditions the root response to variations in moisture and nutrient status in the soil.
Authors:J. Chen, G. Grant, W. Boivin, M. Heinrich, A. Kerr, and R. Tkachuk
A study has been carried out to determine the levels of radioisotopes in five Canadian grains from pre-(1985) and post-Chernobyl (1986) crop years. In addition, the radioisotope levels were determined in grains from the 1988 crop year consisting of wheats, oats, barley, corn and oil seeds which included flax, sunflower and canola. The grain and oil-seed samples were ashed to reduce their volume, and the gammaemitters137Cs and40K were determined using a high-purity germanium detector and a high-purity germanium well detector. The90Sr activity measurements required further ashing of the samples followed by chemical separations and -counting of the separated daughter90Y. The results for the 1985, 1986 and 1988 crop years are discussed and compared with results from grain crops obtained during years of atmospheric bomb tests in the 1950's.
Authors:H. Rausch, I. Sziklai, S. Sándor, and T. Szabó
The chemical composition of brown coal fuels and several sedimental type atmospheric particulate pollutants of industrial origin (e.g. fly-ash, bottom-ash, dust particulates from foundry-halls and casting-halls) was studied in relation to their toxic and their natural radioactive contents. In addition, some agricultural crops (e.g. soya bean, sunflower, rape, barley and luceme) sampled, in the near vicinity within a radius of about 10 km of the industrial centre were also analysed for significant distributions of any toxic components. Because of the high uranium and thorium concentrations in Hungarian coal fuels and, consequently, in various fly-ash particulate pollutants, the natural gamma activities of the samples were also measured and the relevant equilibriu states of the232Th and238U natural decay series were studied.
Authors:J. Kutasi, Á. Bata, E. Brydl, P. Rafai, and V. Jurkovich
This paper describes the production of an enzyme preparation from the fungus Thermomyces lanuginosus. Thermal resistance, pH stability and lignocellulolytic activity of the enzyme preparation high in xylanase were studied on a variety of grains and forages. The enzyme preparation preserved more than 70% of its original xylanase activity for 4 and 1 h at 60 and 70 °C, respectively. The xylanase activity remained over 80% when the preparation was incubated for 30 min at pH 4.5. In vitro digestibility studies indicated that the enzyme digested 7.5, 8.5 and 8.0% of the dry matter (DM) of barley meal, wheat bran and oat meal samples, respectively. When applying 60-min incubation, 7.5, 7.3 and 8.4% of DM of the oat straw, alfalfa hay and triticale straw was digested, respectively. When the time of digestion was increased to 360 min, the sunflower hull showed 15.8% DM digestibility.
Healthy eating, chiefly the quantity and quality of dietary fats and oils, takes a prominent part in promoting the optimal health status and in preventing the development of chronic disorders, mainly cardiovascular diseases. In Hungary the consumption of lard (the characteristic fat in the Hungarian diet) has fallen by 30% since 1980, and that of edible oil (above all sunflower oil) has been almost triplicated since 1970. The total fat consumption remained unchanged. From the eighties and nineties the mortality of cerebrovascular diseases, atherosclerosis and acute myocardial infarction significantly decreased, that of hypertension remained unchanged. Although cardiovascular diseases have a number of aetiological factors, the change of dietary fats and oils may play a role in the improvement of mortality data.
Authors:I. Lamprecht, C. Maierhofer, and M. Röllig
Thermal investigations using infrared (IR) thermometry and false colour
thermography were carried out on flowering plants in the Botanical Garden
of Berlin and in a private garden. Special interest went to phototropic plants
that orient their blossoms towards a light source (mainly the sun) and within
this group to solar trackers (heliotropism) that follow the path of the sun
during the day. Best known among the latter is the sunflower. Bowl shaped
flowers comparable to satellite disks focus the solar radiation effectively
on their centre, resulting in a warming of the female organs at that point.
Temperature differences above ambient can be as high as 10.7 K with a mean
value of 6.0 K. Pollinating insects were often observed sun-basking in the
bowls or on the flower disks attracted by energetic rewards in form of nectar
The characterization of four types of Indian honeys (Trifolium alexandrinum (berseem clover), Brassica sp. (mustard), Helianthus annuus (sunflower), Eucalyptus lanceolatus) was carried out on the basis of their quality parameters (moisture, pH, free acidity, reducing sugars, sucrose, fructose/glucose ratio, colour, ash content, proline content, invertase activity, diastase activity, hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF), and mineral content (sodium, potassium, iron, calcium, zinc, and copper). The source of honey had a significant (P<0.05) effect on moisture content, free acidity, pH, reducing sugar content, fructose/glucose ratio, hydroxymethylfurfural content, invertase and diastase activities, sucrose content, proline, ash content, and mineral content. Pattern recognition methods, such as principal component analysis and linear discriminate analysis, were performed to classify honey on the basis of physicochemical properties and mineral content. The variables calcium, pH, and potassium exhibited higher discrimination power.