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The Slovene ballad Animals Bury the Hunter is an animal narrative song of jocular character. It tells of the burial of a hunter and of a funeral procession not composed of humans but wild animals (a bear, foxes, hares, a wolf, cranes and partridges, song birds, etc.) who seem to derive great joy from the event. The analysis of the song's 31 variants reveals the changes made to the song over the course of time, as it survived through different historical periods and spread throughout Slovenia. I attempt to show that the ballad was used as a model for painted beehive panels featuring the same motif. In addition to the analysis, I am concerned with the sociological and ethical elements of the ballad. The paper proposes at least three possible theses: 1. The song is part of the conception of a topsy-turvy world, where the roles and mutual relationships of people and animals are reversed in an ironic sociological view of the world.  2. The song is a critique of one class by another: peasants mocking hunters who belong to a different social stratum. 3. The song is a representation of “pre-Cartesian” times, when animals were not “mere machines” without feelings, to be treated by man as objects with no ethical significance. It points to the ethical aspects of the human treatment of animals.

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The primary thesis of this paper is that, contrary to popular views, the translation of proper names is a non-trivial question, closely related to the problem of the meaning of the proper name. It aims to show what happens to proper names in the process of translation, particularly from English into Hungarian, to systematise and, within the frames of relevance theory, to explain the phenomena in question. It is suggested that in translating a proper name translators have four basic operations at their disposal: transference, translation proper, substitution and modification, which are defined here and explained in relevance-theoretic terms. The paper presents two case studies, which attempt to explain the treatment of proper names in the Hungarian translations of Kurt Vonnegut's Slaughterhouse-Five and J. F. Cooper's The Last of the Mohicans. The analysis is based on the assumption that translation is a special form of communication, aimed at establishing interpretive resemblance between the source text and the target text, governed by the principle of optimal resemblance (Sperber and Wilson 1986; Gutt 1991). The findings seem to confirm the claim that proper names behave in a largely predictable way in translation: the particular operations chosen to deal with them are a function, partly, of the semantic content they are loaded with in the source context and, partly, of considerations of how this content may be preserved in the target communication situation, including elements like the specific audience, intertextual relationships and translation norms, in consistency with the principle of relevance.

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Rosenthal (Boulder, CO - New York: East European Monographs, distributed by Columbia University Press, 1998), 207-218. For a more extensive treatment see Wolfgang Wippermann, Wessen Schuld? Vom Historikerstreit zur Goldhagen

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Acta Linguistica Hungarica
Authors: Péter Siptár and Szilárd Szentgyörgyi

The paper discusses the possible analyses of the behaviour of [h] and [x] in Hungarian. It argues that in a derivational, rule-based framework two types of analyses are possible: one that assumes two separate underlying segments, /x/ and /h/, and thus misses the generalisation that the two segments are in complementary distribution, a typical characteristic of allophones. The second kind of approach argues that [h] and [x] come from the same underlying segment; this type of analysis can be further divided into two subtypes. According to one of these, the underlying segment is /h/. To be able to derive the attested output forms, three separate strengthening rules must be posited, an obvious disadvantage. The other possible approach, on the other hand, argues that the underlying segment is always /x/ weakened into a [h] in onsets and deleted in a group of lexically marked words by a minor rule. Besides, we also consider the behaviour of H-type segments in voice assimilation: they trigger but do not undergo that process. Siptár and Törkenczy (2000) suggest that if a filter disallowing surface voiced dorsal fricatives is proposed, then the desired result is obtained. While such a filter is an ad hoc device in rule-based theories, it is an organic part of a solution in Optimality Theory (OT), which argues that both /h/ and /x/ may occur in the input and the constraint hierarchy must be such that they should always select well-formed output candidates as optimal regardless of the input. As a result of this and Lexicon Optimization (LO), non-alternating forms will have /h/ or /x/ in their underlying representation depending on the output forms while alternating forms may have an underlying /x/ or /h/ as a result of the alternation sensitive LO (Inkelas 1994). Finally, we will show that the treatment of the behaviour of /x/ or /h/ in voice assimilation is simple in OT if we assume the constraint proposed by Siptár and Törkenczy (2000), prohibiting voiced dorsal fricatives, which, interacting with the ones suggested by Petrova et al. (2001), will be able to select the actual surface form as optimal in all cases.

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Summary Initially, the paper “Ethnic Stereotypes in the Macedonian Folklore and their Reflection in the Macedonian Contemporary Literature' is focusing on the ethnic stereotypes in folklore, knowing that it often reflects the historical reality in a fuller, more penetrating way than the other sources. In the Macedonian folklore, the positive image and the epic glorification of the Macedonian heroes are opposed to the manifested negative judgments about Others (mostly Turks and Arabs), often based upon ethnic stereotypes. The treatment of the motifs and the characters in them are quite typicalized and even overproportioned by frequent usage of hyperbolas and contrasts. The paper presents Bolen Dojcin and Marko Krale as typical heroes whose images succumb to stereotyping and the Crna Arapina as the perfect depiction of their enemy. These folklore images and stereotypes have significant implications and reflections in the Macedonian contemporary literature, especially in the poetry, so in the major part of the paper it deals mostly with these expressions. One of the main reasons for the usage of these “old-fashioned' stereotypes is to provoke familiar images in the people's minds (both good and evil), and to use this touch of the tradition as a base for the new ideas and poetry innovations. This paper pursues their transformations in the contemporary poetry of a few Macedonian authors, such as Blaze Koneski, Vlada Urosevic, Radovan Pavlovski and others. We read their poetry as intertext, namely as restoration and resemantisation of the traditional oral poetry, and we follow up the modifications done in their composition, versification and basic poetry idea. Apart from the poetry, these images and stereotypes taken from the Macedonian folklore can be noted in the other genres of the Macedonian contemporary literature, who enclose rereading of the ethnic stereotypes, upgrading of mythical fables, unconventional, unconditional and often very complexed usage of the folklore elements, symbols, myths or motifs. The paper leads to the conclusion that Macedonian folklore accumulates knowledge and image of the Other, but at the same time abounds with ethnical stereotypes. In the text, they were viewed through their manifestations and their alterations mainly in contemporary Macedonian poetry, through a number of paradigms and poetic concepts, highlighting their ability to make use of the spirit of the tradition as fundamentals for the fresh ideas and expressive innovations.

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Pléh, Csaba — Farrel Ackermann — András Komlósi 1989. On the psycholinguistics of preverbal modifiers in Hungarian: Adult intuitions and children’s treatment of modifiers. In: Folia Linguistica (Acta Societatis Linguistica Eurpaeae) 23: 181

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Joachim von Watt (Ioachimus Vadianus) kommentárja, amely az első tudományos igényű Mela-kommentárnak tekinthető, elsőként 1518-ban jelent meg. Előzményének Ermolao Barbaro velencei humanista Castigationes Plinianae et in Pomponium Melam című filológiai kommentárját tekinthetjük. A lemmák vizsgálata során az ókori és a kora újkori uralkodóportrék két csoportját különíthetjük el, a jó és a rossz királyokét, illetve császárokét. A kommentárnak ez az olvasata az antik mű új tartalommal való felruházására irányuló törekvést példázza, amelynek során a lemmaíró Vadianus a korabeli olvasó számára hasznos ismereteket kíván közvetíteni. Ez az olvasat Vadianus későbbi munkájában, a Sankt Gallenben írt Epitome trium terrae partiumban már nem jelenik meg, ami bizonyítja a kommentár uralkodóképében rejlő propagandisztikus célokat. A rossz és jó uralkodók legkiemelkedőbb példái Nagy Sándor és I. (Jagelló) Zsigmond, a többi uralkodó e két pólus között helyezkedik el. Az ókor rossz uralkodóinak bemutatásakor Vadianus az ókori toposzokat követi: olvashatunk Neróról és Caliguláról, de a lemmákban rossz uralkodóként szerepel a késő római Pertinax császár is. A helvét humanista utóbbit erkölcsi szempontból ítéli el, bár a Historia Augusta leírásában nem szerepelnek az általa leírt morális aspektusok. Az antikvitás jó uralkodói, Antoninus Pius és Marcus Aurelius is erkölcsi szempontból kiemelkedőek Vadianus számára, azonban a modern uralkodók tekintetében a morális jó tulajdonságok mellett a hadi jártasság is a jó uralkodó ismérve. Véleménye szerint a jó uralkodó képes a kettőt összeegyeztetni egymással, és emellett emberi vonásait is megőrizni, ahogy I. Miksa és I. Zsigmond is.

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sources and an extensive literature on the formation and character of Hungarian national consciousness. For the sake of simplicity, I mention here only one, which is both a treatment and a source, since it contains studies by greatest authorities and the

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Clark, L. V. (1980): Turkic Loanwords in Mongol I. The Treatment of Non-initial s , z , š , č . Central Asiatic Journal Vol. 24, pp. 36–59. Clark L. V. Turkic Loanwords in Mongol

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. External possesion 1999 Jackendoff, Ray 1990. On Larson’s treatment of the double object construction. In: Linguistic Inquiry

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