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lead to the so-called ‘superinfection’, which results in higher virulence and pathogenicity due to recombination events of the viral genomes ( Kann et al., 2006; Beczkowski et al., 2015 ). To test a cat’s infection status, point-of-care enzyme

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The present study reports on the location of major foci of footrot in goats in the Extremadura region of Spain by the determination of locally occurring strictly anaerobic microorganisms involved in the pathogenesis and development of this disease. The most commonly isolated microorganisms belonged to the genera Dichelobacter, Fusobacterium, Porphyromonas and Prevotella; these were found in conjunction with other species of minor importance. The species most frequently isolated were Fusobacterium necrophorum (40%), Dichelobacter nodosus (31.7%), Porphyromonas asaccharolytica (21.1%) and Prevotella melaninogenica (12.9%). Virulence factors identified in the isolated microorganisms included haemolysins, elastases and lecithinases, which enabled the organisms involved to initiate and/or aggravate the disease. Serotyping was performed for Dichelobacter nodosus isolates, since this species is responsible for triggering the process of infection. A and C were the most frequently isolated serovarieties (representing 40.7% and 25.9% of the cases, respectively).

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Better vaccines and new therapeutic drugs could be a successful breakthrough against intracellular bacteria. M. tuberculosis ABC transporter ATPase (Rv0986) plays a role in mycobacterial virulence by inhibiting phagosome-lysosome fusion. Thus, it could be a potential vaccine candidate. C. pneumoniae another important intracellular bacterium possesses a protein named CpB0255, which is homologous with the mycobacterial Rv0986. The aim of this study was the cloning, over-expression and purification of CpB0255 ABC transporter ATPase protein to study its biological properties. The immunogenicity and protective effect of recombinant chlamydial ATPase protein combined with Alum adjuvant were investigated in mice. The immunization resulted in the reduction of the number of viable C. pneumoniae in the lungs after challenge. Our results confirm that chlamydial ATPase induces protective immunity in mice.

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virulence plasmids in the isolates from infected foals, dog and monkey. Onderstepoort J. Vet. Res. 68 ,105-110. Prevalence of virulent Rhodococcus equi in isolates from soil collected from 2 horse farms in South Africa and

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Infectious bursal disease virus is an important poultry pathogen. It is distributed worldwide and causes significant economic losses. In this study, a system was adopted for the simultaneous monitoring of vaccine and virulent strains using reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). After the decay of maternal antibodies, chickens were vaccinated at the age of 37 days with a virus of intermediate virulence and challenged at 5, 10 and 14 days post vaccination (dpv). The challenge was done with IBDV strain CH/99. Sequencing of the hypervariable region of VP2 has shown that CH/99 belongs to the very virulent group of viruses. The vaccine virus could be found in the bursa of Fabricius, spleen, thymus and bone marrow until 24 dpv. The CH/99 challenge virus was found in the bursa and lymphoid organs when chickens were challenged at 5 and 10 dpv. When challenge was performed at 14 dpv, the pathogenic virus could not be found in the bursa and other lymphoid organs.

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Acta Microbiologica et Immunologica Hungarica
Authors: L. Kredics, Zsuzsanna Antal, A. Szekeres, L. Hatvani, L. Manczinger, Cs. Vágvölgyi, and Erzsébet Nagy

Cellulolytic, xylanolytic, chitinolytic and b-1,3-glucanolytic enzyme systems of species belonging to the filamentous fungal genus Trichoderma have been investigated in details and are well characterised. The ability of Trichoderma strains to produce extracellular proteases has also been known for a long time, however, the proteolytic enzyme system is relatively unknown in this genus. Fortunately, in the recent years more and more attention is focused on the research in this field. The role of Trichoderma proteases in the biological control of plant pathogenic fungi and nematodes has been demonstrated, and it is also suspected that they may be important for the competitive saprophytic ability of green mould isolates and may represent potential virulence factors of Trichoderma strains as emerging fungal pathogens of clinical importance. The aim of this review is to summarize the information available about the extracellular proteases of Trichoderma. Numerous studies are available about the extracellular proteolytic enzyme profiles of Trichoderma strains and about the effect of abiotic environmental factors on protease activities. A number of protease enzymes have been purified to homogeneity and some protease encoding genes have been cloned and characterized. These results will be reviewed and the role of Trichoderma proteases in biological control as well as their advantages and disadvantages in biotechnology will be discussed.

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Acta Microbiologica et Immunologica Hungarica
Authors: Ildikó Nyilasi, T. Papp, M. Takó, Erzsébet Nagy, and Cs. Vágvölgyi

Iron is an essential nutrient for most organisms because it serves as a catalytic cofactor in oxidation-reduction reactions. Iron is rather unavailable because it occurs in its insoluble ferric form in oxides and hydroxides, while in serum of mammalian hosts is highly bound to carrier proteins such as transferrin, so the free iron concentration is extremely low insufficient for microbial growth. Therefore, many organisms have developed different iron-scavenging systems for solubilizing ferric iron and transporting it into cells across the fungal membrane. There are three major mechanisms by which fungi can obtain iron from the host: (a) utilization of a high affinity iron permease to transport iron intracellularly, (b) production and secretion of low molecular weight iron-specific chelators (siderophores), (c) utilization of a hem oxygenase to acquire iron from hemin. Patients with elevated levels of available serum iron treated with iron chelator, deferoxamine to remedy iron overload conditions have an increased susceptibility of invasive zygomycosis. Presumably deferoxamine predisposes patients to Zygomycetes infections by acting as a siderophore. The frequency of zygomycosis is increasing in recent years and these infections respond very poorly to currently available antifungal agents, so new approaches to develop strategies to prevent and treat zygomycosis are urgently needed. Siderophores and iron-transport proteins have been suggested to function as virulence factors because the acquisition of iron is a crucial pathogenetic event. Biosynthesis and uptake of siderophores represent possible targets for antifungal therapy.

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Pathogenicity and virulence are multifactorial traits, depending on interaction of viruses with susceptible cells and organisms. The ion channels coded by viruses, viroporins, represent only one factor taking part in the cascade of interactions between virus and cell, leading to the entry of virus, replication and to profound changes in membrane permeability. The M2 protein from influenza A virus forms proton-selective, pH-regulated channel involved in regulating vesicular pH, a function important for the correct maturation of HA glycoprotein. The NB glycoprotein of influenza B viruses is an integral membrane protein with an ion channel activity. The CM2 protein of influenza C virus is an integral membrane glycoprotein structurally analogous to influenza A virus M2 and influenza B virus NB proteins. The picornavirus 3A protein is involved in cell lysis and shows homology with other lytic proteins. Vpu is an oligomeric integral membrane protein encoded by HIV-1, which forms ion channels. The togavirus 6K protein shows structural similarities with other viroporins.

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Acta Microbiologica et Immunologica Hungarica
Authors: G. Klausz, Andrea Tiszai, Zsuzsa Lénárt, Zsófia Gyulai, L. Tiszlavicz, Márta Hőgye, M. Csanády, J. Lonovics, and Yvette Mándi

The interaction between the bacteria and the host is a key factor determining the clinical consequences of H. pylori infection. The immune system plays an important role in either promoting or preventing the disease. The mucosal production of TNF-a, IL-6, IL-8 and IL-10 and the CagA status were investigated in H. pylori-positive patients with duodenal ulcer (DU). The concentrations of these cytokines in gastric antral mucosal specimens from patients infected with H. pylori (n = 40) were determined by ELISA and compared with data on mucosal specimens from H. pylori-negative patients (n = 12). The local TNF-a, IL-6 and IL-8 concentrations in the antral biopsy samples were significantly higher (p < 0.001) in the patients infected with H. pylori than in the samples from the H. pylori-negative subjects. CagA positivity was demonstrated in 39 (97.5%) of the 40 patients with DU, and in 41 (70.7%) of H. pylori-positive (58 of 100) healthy blood donors. In complementary studies focusing on extragastric disease, it was found that 57% of patients with ischaemic heart disease were seropositive as concerns H. pylori, and 91% of them had antibodies against human heat shock protein 60, too. This study suggests that, besides the bacterial virulence factor, the host response of an increased mucosal production of inflammatory cytokines can be relevant to the gastric pathophysiology in H. pylori-induced DU. At the same time, in ischaemic heart diseases the role of autoimmune processes induced by H. pylori cannot be excluded.

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Advances in medical and surgical therapy over the past two decades have changed the nature of patient care during hospitalization. Recently developed technologies and therapies, involving bone marrow or solid-organ transplants and chemotherapeutic agents, have become common at many medical centers, resulting in the emergence of many immunocompromised individuals. In intensive care units (ICU) the use of invasive monitoring devices, parenteral nutrition, broad-spectrum antimicrobial agents, and assisted ventilation has helped in the treatment of patients suffering from previously devastating or fatal diseases and has provided opportunities for life to premature neonates previously thought to be non-viable [1]. However, these successes have resulted in the proliferation of a severely ill, immunocompromised, long-lasting hospitalized patient population. The AIDS epidemic has also added patients at risk to this growing population of immunocompromised individuals [2]. The immunocompromised patient is highly susceptible to nosocomial infections caused by organisms such as fungi that were previously considered to be of low virulence or „non-pathogenic” [3]. Besides the well-known endemic fungal pathogens (Histoplasma capsulatumCoccidioides immitisandBlastomyces dermatitidis), opportunisticCandidaspecies have been implicated most frequently in nosocomial fungal infections.

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