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“reforms” prominent in the EU – IMF agenda. Slow recovery throughout the EMU and a still less favourable economic outlook for countries like Greece or Italy, however, challenge this approach and point to the need of empirical insight. Relying on panel data

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change . Cambridge, MA : Harvard University Press . Peters , B 2009 Persistence of innovation: Stylized facts and panel data evidence . Journal of Technology Transfer 34 2 226

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Econometrics , 12 ( 4 ), 357 – 392 . doi: 10.1002/(sici)1099-1255(199707)12:4<357::aid-jae441>3.0.co;2-t. Levin , AT , Lin , C-F , Chu , C-S 2002 Unit root tests in panel data: Asymptotic and finite

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their average colleague outperforms them (so that they maximise learning)? This cannot be answered with a cross-section (as used in this article); panel data are required to separate cause and effect. Is the ranking of fragile schools (according to the

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estimation for the panel data from 2003 to 2009, as obtained through a logit model. I estimated the self-selection correction term   λ . Because all surveyed people were recent graduates from universities, some individuals may choose to study further (i

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, 20 : 1 – 5 . 10.1016/0165-1765(86)90068-6 Blundell , R. – Bond , S. ( 1998 ): Initial Conditions and Moment Restrictions in Dynamic Panel Data Models . Journal of Econometrics , 87 : 115 – 143 . 10.1016/S0304-4076(98)00009-8 Bouayad

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, even though the method is quite limited in capturing longer-term effects. Our model is based on Falagiarda and Reitz (2015) . These authors employed a similar set of panel data to examine the impact of the ECBs quantitative easing programs. They

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. ( 2013 ): Internal Debt and Multinational Profit Shifting: Empirical Evidence from Firm-Level Panel Data . National Tax Journal 66 ( 1 ): 63 - 96 . 10.17310/ntj.2013.1.03 Bradbury , D. – Hanappi , T. – Moore , A. ( 2018 ): Estimating the

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results, based on the Similarity Analysis We have already mentioned that our raw panel data consists of 4 banks with 10 variables for 10 years. Fortunately, there are no missing data (see in Appendix ). We investigate only the banks to compare them to

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market value: Evidence from Japanese firm level panel data . IIR Working Paper 05-06. Institute of Innovation Research. Hitotsubashi University : Tokyo . Noel , M. , & Schankerman , M. ( 2006

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