Authors:S. Meloni, M. Oddone, N. Genova, and A. Cairo
Part of a research program on cultural heritage aimed to elucidate the production of ceramic artifacts in Roman Pavia is devoted to the localization of the possible sources of raw materials (claypits) as well as to the technological production processes. Clay samples were collected in two different areas nearby Pavia, Lomellina and Oltrepo. Some of these samples were also fired at 950 °C. Archaeological ceramic samples, mostly bricks and tiles of Roman age, were obtained from excavations of Roman settlings close to Pavia. All samples were submitted to instrumental neutron activation analysis for the determination of Ca, Fe and a number of trace elements. Results indicate (1) fired and raw clay samples keep the same elemental fingerprint so that only raw samples data can be used in archaeometric studies; (2) some parameters based on rare earth elements are useful to discriminate the clay samples from the two investigated areas; (3) clay discrimination is confirmed also by discriminant analysis; and (4) the insertion of the elemental composition data of the ceramic artifacts in the statistical treatment allows one to assign the artifacts to one of the investigated areas and confirms that, at Roman times, the production of ceramic building materials was mostly based on the use of local prime matter.
Authors:K. Shanker, M. Singh, V. Srivastava, R. K. Verma, A. K. Gupta, and M. M. Gupta
An online-hyphenated high-performance liquid chromatography-photodiode array-mass spectrometry (HPLC-PDA-MS) analytical method was developed for the simultaneous determination of six lignans of therapeutic importance in four Phyllanthus spp. (P. amarus, P. maderaspatensis, P. urinaria, and P. virgatus). HPLC with monolithic reverse phase silica column (4.6 × 100 mm) and simple isocratic elution of methanol-water mixed with dioxane facilitated the separation of lignans of diverse nature such as diarylbutyrolactone, tetrahydrofuran, isomeric aryltetralin, and diarylbutane type for quantitative analysis. Targeted lignans viz. heliobuphthalmin lactone (1), virgatusin (2), hypophyllanthin (3), phyllanthin (4), nirtetralin (5), and niranthin (6) were confirmed unambiguously in four Phyllanthus species by their abundant molecular adduct ions, retention time, UV, and mass spectra as compared with those of reference compounds. Advantages and limitations of both detection techniques for qualitative (fingerprinting) and quantitative analysis of the above mentioned lignans in four Phyllanthus spp. are discussed. The method was validated following international guidelines. The described method can be utilized for assays and stability tests of P. amarus extracts as well as traditional Indian medicine based on Phyllanthus herb.
Authors:A. Bellatreche, S.R. Mnasri, M. Ben Naceur, and S.S.B. Gaouar
Climate change has significantly affected wheat yield. Many studies have suggested that rising temperatures could be harmful to cereals around the world. Thus, the valorization of the desert wheat resources is essential to improve the resistance of this species to climate change. In this context, twenty-eight different local Saharan bread wheat (Triticumaestivum L.) genotypes were described using ten preselected SSR markers. The tested SSRs produced a total number of 20 alleles with an allelic size ranged from 100 pb (WMC261) to 400 pb (WMC257). The allele frequency varied from 0.1 for the allele 230 pb (WMC156) to 1 for the alleles 187 pb, 310 pb (WMC97, WMC168). Likewise, the PIC values ranged from 0 (WMC97, WMC168) to 0.5 (WMC327, WMC233), with an average of 0.34 and the observed heterozygosity (Ho) from 0 to 0.88, with an average of 0.55. The molecular variance (AMOVA) revealed the highest level of intra-population differentiation of local Saharan bread wheat (97%) and the statistical geometric distributions based on PCoA, NJ method and structure analysis confirmed the existence of four major classes of bread wheat. These results substantiate the previous researches based on the morphological markers and contribute for the first time in Algeria to create the genetic fingerprint of the Saharan bread wheat resources and to valorize their drought resistance potential through breeding programs.
The atmospheric particulate matter samples were collected in Shanghai, China. The X-ray absorption near-edge structure (XANES)
spectra of Cr, Mn, Cu and Zn were measured. The XANES spectroscopy was used as a fingerprint to compare with that of reference
materials to obtain speciation information. The oxidation state of these elements and main chemical components in the samples
were described using the method. The results show that in our samples the oxidation state of Cr is trivalent, Mn mainly exists
in the divalent state, Cu also exists in the divalent state, and Zn mainly exists in the zinc sulfate. For the XANES spectra
of samples with different particle size and from different sampling site, we did not find their obvious differences. When
we compared the XANES spectra of our samples with those of standard reference material SRM 1648, we found that they are similar
in regards to the determined elements. The elemental concentrations in the samples were determined by proton induced X-ray
emission (PIXE). The difference of elemental concentrations was observed in the different samples.
Authors:Hermínio Digo, Susana Pinto, and Joaquim Moura Ramos
The thermal behaviour of salicylsalicylic acid (CAS number 552-94-3) was studied by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC).
The endothermic melting peak and the fingerprint of the glass transition were characterised at a heating rate of 10C min-1. The melting peak showed an onset at Ton = 144C (417 K) and a maximum intensity at Tmax = 152C (425 K), while the onset of the glass transition signal was at Ton = 6C. The melting enthalpy was found to be ΔmH = 28.90.3 kJ mol-1, and the heat capacity jump at the glass transition was ΔCP = 108.10.1 J K-1mol-1. The study of the influence of the heating rate on the temperature location of the glass transition signal by DSC, allowed
the determination of the activation energy at the glass transition temperature (245 kJ mol-1), and the calculation of the fragility index of salicyl salicylate (m = 45). Finally, the standard molar enthalpy of formation of crystalline monoclinic salicylsalicylic acid at T = 298.15 K, was determined as ΔfHmo(C14H10O5, cr) = - (837.63.3) kJ mol-1, by combustion calorimetry.
Authors:T. W. Eschholz, R. Peter, P. Stamp, and A. Hund
Genetic variation in the flint maize (Zea mays L. conv. indurata) gene pool has decreased significantly since the introduction of hybrid breeding into Europe in the 1950s, leading to greater genetic vulnerability. Landraces, stored in gene banks, offer a valuable source to broaden the genetic basis again. The objective of this study was the genetic characterization of 166 Swiss landrace accessions originating from 7 Swiss regions (alpine valleys). The material was fingerprinted using a set of ten SSRs (Simple Sequence Repeat Markers). The resulting cladogram showed three main clusters comprising 95, 22 and 49 accessions, respectively. The largest group of accessions, from the Rhine valley of St. Gallen (RT), was present in all three main clusters. However, the majority of RT accessions was found in the first main cluster, together with those from the western neighbouring region (Linthtal) and from the southwestern neighbouring region (Wallis). Those from Tessin (southern Switzerland) were found mainly in one sub-cluster within the third main cluster. This is a very encouraging first step in appraising the genetic differences among accessions from Swiss regions.
On the basis of the measured time-dependent distribution of references in recent scientific publications, we formulate a novel model on the ageing of recent scientific literature. The framework of this model is given by a basic set of mathematical expressions that allows us to understand and describe large-scale growth and ageing processes in science over a long period of time. In addition, a further and striking consequence results in a self- consistent way from our model. After the Scientific Revolution in 16th century Europe, the 'Scientific Evolution' begins, and the driving processes growth and ageing unavoidably lead - just as in our biological evolution - to a fractal differentiation of science. A fractal structure means a system build up with sub-systems characterised by a power-law size distribution. Such a distribution implies that there is no preference of size or scale. Often this phenomenon is regarded as a fingerprint of self-organisation. These findings are in agreement with earlier empirical findings concerning the clustering of scientific literature. Our observations reinforce the idea of science as a complex, largely self-organising 'cognitive eco-system'. They also refute Kuhn's paradigm model of scientific development.
Authors:A. Etminan, A. Pour-Aboughadareh, R. Mohammadi, A. Noori, and A. Ahmadi-Rad
Progress in plant molecular tools has been resulted in the development of gene-targeted and functional marker systems. CAAT box region is a different pattern of nucleotides with a consensus sequence, GGCCAATCT, which situated upstream of the start codon of eukaryote genes and plays an important role during transcription. In the present study, several CAAT box-derived polymorphism (CBDP) primers were used for fingerprinting in mini-core collection of durum wheat (including internationally developed breeding lines and Iranian landraces). Twelve selected primers amplified 98 loci, of which all were polymorphic. The average values of the polymorphism information content (PIC) and resolving power (Rp) were 0.31 and 9.16, respectively, indicating a high level of variability among studied genotypes. Analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA) indicated that 92% of the total variation resided among populations. The values of the percentage polymorphic bands (PPL), the observed (Na) and effective (Ne) number of alleles, Nei’s gene diversity (He) and Shannon’s information index (I) for Iranian landraces were higher than the breeding lines. The Fandendrogram obtained by cluster analysis grouped all individuals into three main clusters. Our results showed a remarkable level of genetic diversity among studied durum wheat, especially among Iranian landraces, which can be interest for future breeding programs. More importantly, the present study also revealed that CBDP technique was efficient and powerful tool to assess genetic diversity in wheat germplasm. Hence, this technique could be employed individually or in combination with other molecular markers to evaluate genetic diversity and relations among different species.
Lake Hévíz is the largest natural thermal lake of Europe, harboring special bacterial communities. The aim of the present study was to gain information about the distribution and species diversity of the sediment microbiota, with special focus on Actinobacteria, by using cultivation-based and -independent molecular methods. Samples from two depths were taken in two different locations in October 2007. 245 strains were isolated, grouped to 85 OTUs by ARDRA, and identified by 16S rDNA sequencing. Most of the strains showed highest sequence similarity with
and related genera. Strains belonging to the phylum Actinobacteria were identified as members of
Arthrobacter, Brachybacterium, Brevibacterium, Curtobacterium, Friedmanniella, Gordonia, Kocuria, Microbacterium, Micrococcus, Micromonospora, Mycobacterium, Rhodococcus, Streptomyces
. Two clone libraries were constructed from H3M and H4M samples, providing 288 and 192 clones which were grouped to 150 and 125 OTUs, respectively, by ARDRA. The two most abundant group of the H4M library were OP8-related. The phylum Proteobacteria was represented mostly by
-Proteobacteria, other relevant groups were Cyanobacteria, Bacteroidetes, Acidobacteria and
-Proteobacteria. The H3M library was dominated by Cyanobacteria, Verrucomicrobia,
-Proteobacteria. Chloroflexi, Bacteroidetes, Spirochetes and Firmicutes were scarce. Results from the clone libraries were compared to the length-heterogeneity-PCR fingerprints of the communities.
Authors:J. O. Santos, C. S. Munita, M. E. G. Valério, C. Vergne, and P. M. S. Oliveira
Chemistry fingerprint of materials helps determine provenance and technological production techniques, and, therefore, is
useful way to study interaction between prehistoric people. In this work 38 ceramic fragments from Justino and São José sites,
in Brazilian northeast, were analyzed using instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA). The recognition of the compositionally
homogeneous group within of the database was performed by means of principal component (PC). The PC scores were calculated
on the matrix covariance of the log base 10 transformed concentration values, and grouping was sought in the PC scores using
Kernel Density Estimates (KDE). By using KDE from PC scores two chemically different groups were found. Discriminant analysis
was performed to assess the groups' validity. Despite of the pottery from Justino and São José sites present same technical
profile, different of the Tupiguarani and Aratu traditions, it was obtained that Justino and São José samples are constitute
of distinct ceramic pastes. This result can be understood in terms of the cultural influences in the preparation of the ceramic
past and that potteries analyzed are originate locally.