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Abstract  

By applying of Bradford's law to analysis of the source documents and their references by classification systems researchers in the world, this paper presents core authors of the field during the period 1981–1990. The findings show that 1) core authors of the international classification systems literature are the Library of Congress, M. Dewey, S. Ranganathan, J. Comaromi, A. Neelameghan, L. Chan and K. Markey; 2) the highly cited authors are linked either to the developers of the classification systems or to a research center, or else they authored the most frequently cited books; and 3) the data confirms to Bradford's law and the unusual rising tail of Bradford distribution is appeared and explained.

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Abstract  

A non-homogeneous birth process is used to describe the statistical properties of bibliometric citation processes. The model is analysed under special assumptions. Thelife-time distribution, special probabilities and mean value functions are used to characterize differences in the ageing structure of scientific literature, the change of citation impact in time and to analyse predictive aspects of reception processes. The results are applied to selected journals representing one field in science and social science each. The empirical part of the study is based on a 14-year citation history (papers published in 1978 and cited 1978–1991). An intimate, connection between impact and ageing cannot be observed. However, the ageing behaviour seems to be clearly influenced by field characteristics and by special document/journal types, such as letters and short communications.

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Abstract  

An examination was conducted of the distributions produced by historical treatments of three scientific specialties: quantum mechanics, plate tectonics, and endocrinology. A citation analysis approach was employed to generate a frequency distribution for year of publication of literature referenced by historians. The observed values were normalized and tested for goodness of fit to each other using a Pearson goodness of fit test. The results indicated that the three distributions were not equivalent. Other parameters of the three distributions did show similarities using aDunn planned comparison approach. The skewness of the three distributions was very similar and plate tectonics and endocrinology were similar in terms of kurtosis. The major conclusion reached was that there were major differences in the three distributions but some similarities in particular parameters were evident. Additional work is necessary to determine causal factors for the differences as well as similarities.

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Scientometrics
Authors: Wolfgang Glänzel, Balázs Schlemmer, András Schubert, and Bart Thijs

Summary  

Scientific meetings have become increasingly important channels for scholarly communi-cation. In several fields of applied and engineering sciences they are - according to the statements of scientists active in those fields - even more important than publishing in periodicals. One objective of this study is to analyse the weight of proceedings literature in all fields of the sciences, social sciences and humanities as well as the use of the ISI Proceedings database as additional data source for bibliometric studies. The second objective is exploring the use of a further important feature of this database, namely, of information about conference location for the analysis of bibliometrically relevant aspects of information flow such as the relative attractivity, the extent of mobility and unidirectional or mutual affinity of countries.

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Abstract  

A more globalized concept of culture and the tsunami of information made available by the digital revolution call for new reading practices. The emerging discipline of World Literature is an attempt to create such practice, but one that would seem to have very little place in it for the highly specialized skills that define philology, the closest of all close reading strategies. It is this tension that has sparked several calls for a “return to philology.” A historical overview of the Golden Age of classical philology in Germany (1777–1872) suggests that the skills that have defined the profession all over the globe from earliest times are still valuable, but in future can best be employed only in cooperation with scholars having other competencies.

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Abstract  

Since world literature is represented in different languages, translation has played an important role in reconstructing such world literatures in different languages and cultural backgrounds. In the past decades, the postcolonial literary attempts have also proved that even in the same language, for instance, English, literary writing is still more and more diversifying, hence the birth of international English literature studies. Thus the concept “world literature” is no longer determinate, for it has evolved in the historical development of literature of all countries. Today’s literary historiography is thereby pluralistically oriented: not only by means of nation-state, for instance, British literature and American literature, but also by means of language, such as (international) English literature(s), and (international) Chinese literature(s). Walter Benjamin, in dealing with the task of the (literary) translator, pertinently points out that translation endows a literary work with “continued life” or “afterlife”, without which many literary works of world significance will remain dead or marginalized. Inspired by Benjamin’s thinking of translation and Damrosch’s emphasis on the role played by translation in constructing world literature, the author lays particular emphasis on the translation of literary works which may well help form such a world literature. The reason why Chinese literature is little known to the world is largely for lack of excellent translation. The author thereby calls for translating Chinese literature into some of the major world languages.

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Abstract  

Citation patterns of 400 very highly cited scientific papers are identified and the relationship of citation patterns to literature aging rates is investigated. Standardized citation counts for 1972 through 1980 are used as variables in a cluster analysis which groups papers with similar citation patterns and a discriminant analysis is used to refine the descriptions of clusters and to confirm the results. Among highly cited papers published in 1972, two basic citation patterns are identified: one group is highly cited in the first years following publication and declines in citedness thereafter; the second group reaches its citation peak in the sixth year following publication and declines in citedness in the seventh, eighth, and ninth years of the series. Both groups show general evidence of aging.Price's suggestion that less highly cited papers age more rapidly than more highly cited papers is confirmed.

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of vitamin E, we here performed a comprehensive literature survey focusing on recently investigated antibacterial and immune-modulatory effects of vitamin E and its derivates, particularly against MDR bacterial pathogens. Material and methods

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Abstract  

In the current era, why is everybody talking about globalization? Will globalization bring us a happier life, or will it bring us better opportunities to develop our production and academic research? The answer is both yes and no. For as far as scholars of the humanities, or more specifically, comparatists are concerned, globalization is not necessarily a good thing. It has raised severe challenges against our intellectual life and literary scholarship. Of course, some of us do welcome the advent of globalization viewing it as a rare opportunity to develop East-West comparative literature and cultural studies. This is perhaps one of the reasons why talking a lot about globalization has become an academic fashion within and without our discipline, especially in China in recent years. But why are there so many people talking about globalization, especially those of the humanities and social sciences? Because there is indeed a lot to say about this hot topic: economic globalization, financial globalization, political globalization, cultural globalization and even mass media globalization, all of which are influencing our mode of thinking and penetrating our academic life in varying degrees.

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Abstract  

This article analyses the roles of paratexts in the translations of several Haitian novels as a basis for re-visioning the paratext in my own translation of Marie Vieux-Chauvet’s novel Les Rapaces (1986). I suggest that paratexts often play a colonizing role in relation to the texts they present through the generalized assumption that the purpose of paratexts is to facilitate access to a foreign language and culture. By examining the functioning of paratexts in several previous translations of Haitian literature, I reveal the colonizing effect of conventional paratexts, and begin to imagine a decolonized paratext for The Raptors. I propose that a more critical role for the paratext of a translation is to draw attention to the translated nature of the text, the resistance and opacity of its linguistic and cultural differences, and the process of negotiation, exchange, and travel on which the translation depends. This strategy is in line with a feminist critique of the limited repertoires for relating to difference offered by masculine epistemologies and promotes an activist feminist agenda through literary re-presentation.

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