The period since unification has seen a new era opening up for Sorbian literature. After the establishment of the tradition
of bilingual writing in the GDR it has entered an uncertain, but more open relationship with German culture. It has also entered
a post-national world, in which the old national limitations no longer apply. Despite some writers insisting on writing only
in Sorbian it is difficult to see how it can go back to being a purely inward-looking literature ignoring the German-dominated
cultural environment around it. The number of readers capable of reading in Sorbian is diminishing, and even for the majority
of Sorbs who are literate in Sorbian, their major reading language will be German. It is only a minority, primarily the Catholic
Sorbs, who will continue to read primarily in Sorbian. Several writers have shown possible paths for the future development
of a specifically Sorbian contribution in which the connections between Sorbian and German culture are stressed, rather than
the divisions between them, which does not necessarily mean a renunciation of a Sorbian identity, but a recognition of present-day
realities. It is nevertheless also true that for a number of Sorbian writers their role as providers of a particular focus
for the articulation of concerns about the survival of the Sorbs as a distinct linguistic and cultural group will remain uppermost
in their work.
The paper aims to analyse state-owned enterprises (SOEs) in 11 post-socialist Central-Eastern European (CEE) countries. Based on the individual data of large non-financial companies, we estimated the real state share in the years 2014 and 2015. We consider both direct and indirect state ownership and apply an explicit classification of companies as majority and minority state-owned, which is neglected in a lot of research. The countries with the highest values of the ‘Country SOE index’ were Slovenia and Latvia, while the lowest were Lithuania and Hungary. State ownership is dominant in transportation and storage and energy supply. The lower return on assets (ROA), return on equity (ROE) and return on capital employed (ROCE) ratios of SOEs imply that capital in this group of companies is used less efficiently. Furthermore, they are characterised by higher wage costs. At the same time, SOEs have higher earnings before interest, taxes, depreciation and amortization (EBITDA) margins and better ability to turn operating revenue into cash than their privately-owned counterparts.
Authors:Angel-Alex Hăisan, Zizi Goschin, and Mihai Avornicului
Mass migration was, is, and will always be an important topic of discussion regardless of whether it is economically, socially, or politically motivated. This is certainly a matter of great concern for Romania, currently Europe’s largest sender of migrants to Western Europe. Considering that the educational system should be of the uttermost priority, we addressed the issue of emigration propensity among Romanian teachers making use of data from our own nationwide survey. Bivariate logistic models were employed to identify the main factors behind the emigration decisions of pre-university teachers. Aiming to enrich the narrow economic perspective, we adopted a novelty approach by focusing on an overlooked determinant in emigration research studies, namely ethnicity in relation to nationality. Among Romania’s minorities, Hungarians are the most important ethnic group, accounting for 6.1% of the population, hence we explored their migration behaviour compared to Romanian ethnics. The results from the logistic regression models indicate significant differences regarding the factors that trigger the intention to initiate the emigration process for our subjects, based on their ethnicity. We found that teachers of Hungarian ethnicity display 50.6% less propensity to emigrate compared to the ones of Romanian ethnicity and we were able to shape distinct emigration profiles for the two groups.
The paper introduces a simulation, which was developed by Michael Krassa to model the opinion contagion. Krassa developed his model by using the theory of the spiral of silence that says that the perception of the public opinion influences the opinion assertion of the people and the threshold models that show how much support one person needs for the public assertion of his opinion. With the help of these relationships Krassa integrated the social networks in his model. We applied Krassa's mathematical model to two cases, the parliamentary elections of 2002 and the EU-parliamentary elections of 2004 in Hungary. We used hypothetical thresholds to examine the data because the actual threshold values are not known. The results of the simulation show that it can happen that we measure the minority opinion to be higher than the real distribution of the opinions as a consequence of the different distribution of the threshold values of the opinion assertion. This can be one explanation of the wrong electoral forecast. The problem is that the model helps little to give a better forecast because we have no data about the threshold values and we do not know the point where the dynamics of the opinion contagion stands at the time of the survey.
Mating rivalry is not only limited to one's ingroup, but also outgroup members can be perceived as potential romantic competitors. In the present research, intergroup intrasexual competition (IIC) is defined as the extent to which individuals react negatively towards potential outgroup same-sex members in the context of mating competition. The authors present a scale developed to assess individual variation in IIC. The scale was administered to five student samples: 78 Dutch, 396 Dutch, 105 German, 306 Latvian and 96 Russian. Through a factor analysis, a long version of the scale was reduced to a 12-item version. A moderate test-retest correlation was established. IIC correlated positively with intrasexual competition, social dominance orientation, possessive jealousy and perceived vulnerability to disease, serving as indicators of convergent validity. As predicted, men scored overall higher than women on the IIC scale, but not in the samples where the participants came from a national minority group (Germans in the Netherlands and Russians in Latvia). Latvian male participants showed the highest level of IIC, followed by the Russians, the Dutch and the Germans.
Authors:Kaeko Hoshino, G. Eördegh, A. Nagy, G. Benedek, and M. Norita
The lateralis medialis-suprageniculate nucleus (LM-Sg) of the feline posterior thalamus is a relay nucleus with a clear visuomotor function. In this study, we examined the distribution of axon terminals of the nigral afferent to the LM-Sg following injection of an anterograde tracer, biocytin, into the substantia nigra pars reticulata, and the distribution of the thalamostriatal projection neurons in the LM-Sg following the injection of wheat germ agglutinin conjugated with horseradish peroxidase (WGA-HRP) as a retrograde tracer into the caudate nucleus. The biocytin-labeled terminal-like puncta were located in the ventromedial portion of this nucleus in such a way that most of the labeled elements took the form of swellings having boutons in places, while a minority appeared in clusters of 3–5 large terminal-like puncta. The retrograde WGA-HRP-labeled neurons were also found in the ventromedial part of the LM-Sg, and the distributions of labeled nigrothalamic axon terminals and labeled thalamostriatal projection neurons therefore overlapped in this region. The present results indicate that the nigral afferent may make synaptic contacts directly with the thalamostriatal projection neurons within the LM-Sg.
Authors:Massoumeh Shafiei, Gholamreza Omrani, and Massoud Mahmoudian
The internal mammary artery (IMA) is currently the preferred conduit for myocardial revascularization. However, perioperative vasospasm and a hypoperfusion state during maximal exercise may limit its use as a bypass graft. The mechanism of spasm has not been clearly defined. Since beta-adrenoceptor activation plays a major role in vasorelaxation, the present study was carried out to investigate the beta-adrenoceptor responsiveness of human IMA smooth muscle. Isoproterenol produced a concentration-dependent relaxation in endothelium-denuded IMA segments, precontracted with phenylephrine (maximal relaxation 46.33....5.45%). Atenolol (10 –6 M) and propranolol (2×10 –7 M) inhibited isoproterenol-induced relaxation. While atenolol produced partial inhibition, propranolol caused a complete inhibition in a majority of the segments and a partial inhibition in a minority. BRL 37344, a selective beta 3-adrenoceptor agonist, produced a concentration-dependent relaxation in phenylephrine-precontracted rings of endothelium-denuded IMA (maximal relaxation 40.35....4.07%). Cyanopindolol, a beta-adrenoceptor partial agonist, produced a marked relaxation (58.65....6.2%) in endothelium-denuded IMA rings, precontracted with phenylephrine. Cyanopindolol-induced relaxation was resistant to blockade by propranolol (2×10 –7 M). Spontaneous contractions of IMA rings were also observed in some cases that were inhibited by isoproterenol and BRL 37344. This observation implies the important role of beta-adrenoceptor activation in prevention of human IMA spasm.
The process of cultural adaptation of the Slovak colonists to the new living conditions in Lowland did not result in the cultural destruction. There was a selective transfer of cultural information that corresponded with the Slovak enclaves’ current needs in the new environment. However, the Slovak material culture did not lose its previous role of the main symbol of ethnic identification. Interaction between Slovaks, the majority community and other ethnic minorities, was reflected in the material culture. Social conditions in Lowland were favourable for the Slovak colonists’ efforts to negotiate the differences between their original material culture and the new one that they were building in the process of construction of their new living environment. The Slovak enclaves in Lowland manifested a high degree of “cultural literacy” — the ability to exist in certain material and social environment. Their cultural competencies that were acquired in the native cultural environment in Slovakia (socialization) were effectively implemented in the multiethnic and multicultural environment. The ability of ethnic community to adapt to the changed living conditions which does not have significant impact on ethnic identification is known as cultural adaptability.
New museology, emerging in the 1970s, reached critical museology in the early 2000s. A few peculiar examples of participatory museology can be found when looking back to decades of tradition at the Skanzen Hungarian Open Air Museum. It was a long transformation from an essentially architectural museum into a social museum. In my paper I reflect on some examples of this history.
Open air museums represent one of the most popular and sought-after museum types in the world, with significant ethnographic and historical collections, visitor-friendly exhibitions, and a wide range of programs related to these exhibitions. It is a common phenomenon in the museum world that social problems and sensitive issues first appear in education programs, then in research and collection strategy, and finally in exhibition politics. And so it was at the Skanzen. The tendency began in the early 21st century, when, connected to the Trianon syndrome, it materialized in the research related to the preparation of the Transylvanian building complex, then to the social traumas of 20th-century peasant society. The minority existence, being a Hungarian outside the country’s borders, is a cornerstone of the interpretation of the Transylvanian building complex. The analysis of 20th-century changes and research and collections related to the yet-to-be-built 20th-century rural building complex touched upon the history of the disappearance of peasant society as well.
The article analyses the circumstances of the origin, the course and after-life of a folk religious movement that emerged in 1986, during the time of the communist dictatorship. The religious movement arose in a region inhabited by an ethnic group constituting a religious and linguistic minority, the Csángós of Moldavia, in one of the most economically backward zones of Romania. The Csángós of Moldavia (a Hungarian-speaking, Roman Catholic ethnic group) in many respects resemble pre-industrial ethnic groups; their world view and religious practice have mediaeval characteristics. The Romanian communist regime had one of the community's leaders killed; a doctor who was also a consecrated priest. After his death people began to attribute miraculous, healing power to the well in front of his house. As a result the well soon became a place of pilgrimage attracting crowds of thousands. The Securitate (the Romanian secret police) tried to prevent the development of the cult; it dispersed what had become a constant crowd of believers around the well and placed it under police control. Despite the bans the pilgrimages did not stop, on the contrary they increasingly took on the character of a movement. After the area around the well was closed, the destination of the pilgrimages was shifted to the village cemetery where the doctor was buried and where the miracles, healings and visions continued.