Authors:M Ninković, M Ninković, M Ninković, Z Maličević, Z Maličević, Z Maličević, A Jelenković, A Jelenković, A Jelenković, DM Jovanović, DM Jovanović, DM Jovanović, M Đukić, M Đukić, M Đukić, I Vasiljević, I Vasiljević, and I Vasiljević
a part of blood-brain barrier, brain capillaries participate in
pathophysiological events during systemic inflammation. We investigated the
effects of 7-nitroindazole (7-NI), selective neuronal nitric oxide synthase
(NOS) inhibitor, to oxidative status (OS) of brain capillaries. Adult Wistar
rats were randomized at groups: control group (CG) (sham operated), sepsis
group (GS) (cecal ligation and perforation with inoculation of Escherichia
coli (ATCC 25922), 7-NI group (G7-NI), (30 mg/kg b/w i. p.) and 7-NI +
sepsis group (G7-NIS), (7-NI was applied 30 minutes before operation). Lipid
peroxidation index (LPI), nitrite concentration, superoxide dismutase (SOD)
activity and superoxide anion (O2·-) content were determined 3, 6, 24 and 48 hour in each
group. Cerebral capillaries were separated from non-vascular brain tissue
using sucrose gradient. Compared to controls, LPI, nitrite and O2·- increased at SG. In the G7-NIS, LPI reached control
values at the 24 th and 48 th hour, while nitrite were
decreased at the 3 rd and 24 th hour, compared to controls. In the same
group, O2·- decreased at the 3 rd, 6 th and 24 th hour, although SOD showed variable activity.
The systematic nNOS inhibition with 7-NI forces OS on early terms of sepsis,
but lately it contributes to the normalization of OS in cerebral capillaries.
Authors:K. Rajagopalan, P. Ravindran, and T. Radhakrishnan
TG-DTA-EGA studies have shown that anhydrous uranyl nitrate cannot be obtained by thermal decomposition of uranyl nitrate
hexahydrate. Hydrolysis and polymerization of the salt during dehydration resulted in hydroxynitrates which decomposed in
multiple steps with the evolution of oxides of nitrogen and water. The extent of hydrolysis dependend on the sample size,
heating rate and nature of sample containment. Large samples on decomposition at relatively high heating rates showed evolution
of nitric oxide even above 500°C. Infrared studies on the residues prepared at various temperatures supported the conclusions.
Thioacetamide (TAA) is a potent hepatotoxicant in acute and chronic hepatic injury. The study examined the protective effect of sesame oil against TAA-induced hepatic injury in rats. Hepatic injury was induced by intraperitoneal injection of 100 mg/kg of TAA for 24 h. Triple doses of sesame oil (1, 2, or 4 mL/kg) was given orally 0, 6, and 12 h after TAA treatment. TAA significantly increased serum aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) levels. Sesame oil decreased serum AST and ALT levels and significantly inhibited hepatic lipid peroxidation and nitric oxide levels compared with TAA-alone group. Further, sesame oil significantly inhibited TAA-induced hepatic neutrophil activation marker myeloperoxidase activity. However, sesame oil did not affect hepatic tumor necrosis factor, IL-1β and IL-10 generation in TAA-treated group. In conclusion, sesame oil protects against TAA-induced hepatic injury and oxidative stress via the inhibition of neutrophil activation. However, inflammatory cytokines may not be involved in sesame-oil-associated hepatic protection against TAA in rats.
Authors:Behnam Ahmadipour, Mohammadreza Sharifi, and Fariborz Khajali
This study assessed the preventive effects of arginine (ARG) and guanidinoacetic acid (GAA) on the incidence of pulmonary hypertension syndrome (PHS) in broiler chickens. Four isoenergetic and isonitrogenous diets were prepared, including: (i) the control, (ii) the control supplemented with 1 g/kg ARG, (iii) the control supplemented with 1 g/kg GAA, and (iv) the control supplemented with 1.5 g/kg GAA. These diets were fed to broilers (Ross 308) from day 1 to 42 post-hatch. Criteria evaluated in the experiment were growth performance, carcass characteristics, serum and blood variables, lead-II electrocardiogram, and ET-1 and iNOS gene expression in heart and lungs. Mortality from PHS was recorded daily. The results showed that ARG and GAA supplements improved the feed conversion ratio (FCR) compared to the control (P < 0.05). Supplementation of ARG and GAA significantly (P < 0.05) increased serum nitric oxide (NO) concentration. ARG and GAA supplementation significantly reduced the haematocrit value and the heterophil to lymphocyte ratio in the blood. A significant (P < 0.05) decline in S-wave amplitude of the lead-II electrocardiogram, right to total ventricular weight ratio (RV:TV) and ascites mortality was observed by supplementing ARG or 1.5 g/kg GAA. Addition of ARG and GAA supplements did not significantly change ET-1 and iNOS gene expression in the heart and lung relative to the control. In conclusion, GAA supplementation at 1.5 g/kg had a potential to improve growth performance and could prevent PHS.
Authors:A. Altınok, Z.M. Coşkun, K. Karaoğlu, S. Bolkent, A.G. Akkan, and S. Özyazgan
In this study, we investigated the possible effect of Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), a peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ) agonist, on metabolic control and vascular complications of diabetes in streptozotocin/nicotinamide (STZ/NIC) induced type 2 diabetes mellitus.
Material and methods
Type 2 diabetes was induced with 65 mg/kg STZ, 15 minute later 85 mg/kg NIC was given intraperitoneally (i.p.) to rats. Three days after diabetes induction, THC (3 mg/kg/day, i.p.) was given for 7 days to diabetic rats. Body weight and plasma glucose levels of rats were measured in all groups before and at the end of 3 weeks after diabetes induction. Acetylcholine (Ach) and sodium nitroprusside (SNP) potency and maximum relaxant effects were calculated on aortic rings pre-contracted with noradrenaline (NA).
At the end of 3 weeks, blood glucose levels of diabetic group significantly increased in comparison with the control group. Increased plasma glucose levels were significantly decreased by the treatment of THC. Ach induced relaxation was impaired whereas endothelium-independent relaxation to SNP was unaffected on isolated diabetic rat aorta. THC treatment enhanced Ach induced relaxation on diabetic rat aortas.
These results suggested that THC improved endothelium-dependent relaxation in STZ/NIC induced diabetic rat aorta and that these effects were mediated at least in part, by control of hyperglycemia and enhanced endothelial nitric oxide bioavailability.
Authors:M Slavić, M Slavić, M Slavić, I Appiah, I Appiah, I Appiah, A Nikolić-Kokić, A Nikolić-Kokić, A Nikolić-Kokić, R Radojičić, R Radojičić, R Radojičić, DR Jones, DR Jones, DR Jones, MB Spasić, MB Spasić, MB Spasić, S Milovanović, S Milovanović, S Milovanović, D Blagojević, D Blagojević, and D Blagojević
interactions between nitric oxide donors, reactive oxygen species and
anti-oxidative defence enzymes led us to determine the activities of
anti-oxidative defence enzymes in isolated uterine smooth muscle before and
after spontaneous rhythmic activity ex vivo. For our experiments we
used isolated uteri from female Wistar rats. Our results showed an increase
in total superoxide dismutase (SOD) and Mn SOD activities in uterine smooth
muscle after spontaneous contractions when compared with non-exercised
uterine smooth muscle. The activity of catalase (CAT) and glutathione
preoxidase (GSH-Px) were also increased. No statistically significant changes
in the activities of glutathione reductase (GR) and CuZn SOD were found. It
is known that an organism's anti-oxidative defence system (guarding against
excessive reactive oxygen species generation) requires balanced increments in
its individual anti-oxidative enzyme activities rather than increases in the
activity of only some enzymes without increases in others. Thus, we may
conclude that some adaptive responses are found in exercised uterine smooth
muscle but are not complete. Therefore, our results indicate that changes in
anti-oxidative enzyme activities may influence the results of the examination
of substances ex vivo.
Authors:Maria Marques, Cintia Matsumura, and H. Santo Neto
Brenman, J. E., Chao, D. S., Xia, H., Aldape, K., Bredt, D. S. (1995) Nitricoxide synthase complexed with dystrophin and absent from skeletal muscle sarcolemma in Duchenne muscular dystrophy.
Authors:Attila Szepes, Zsolt Dubravcsik, and László Madácsy
Madácsy, L., Velősy, B., Szepes, A., et al.: Effect of nitricoxide on gallbladder motility in patients with acalculous biliary pain: a cholescintigraphic study. Dig. Dis. Sci., 2002, 47 , 1975–1981.