Authors:M. Szelagiewicz, C. Marcolli, S. Cianferani, A. Hard, A. Vit, A. Burkhard, M. von Raumer, U. Hofmeier, A. Zilian, E. Francotte, and R. Schenker
The use of hot-stage Raman microscopy — the direct coupling of Raman spectroscopy and thermomicroscopy — is demonstrated for the drug substances paracetamol and lufenuron.Paracetamol is a well-known analgesic and antipyretic drug, for which three polymorphic forms are currently known. Lufenuron is a benzoylphenyl urea derivative that has been classified as a chitin synthesis inhibitor. It is indicated for the use in pets for the prevention and control of flea population and used in crop protection for the control of Lepidoptera, Western Flower thrips and rust mites. It is the first time that the polymorphism of lufenuron is addressed. All known modifications of paracetamol and lufenuron were produced and identified by hot-stage Raman microscopy. A close correlation of thermal and spectroscopic information was achieved by this combination of techniques.For lufenuron a series of new polymorphic forms were found and characterized. Raman spectroscopy allowed to identify the thermodynamic stable form A as the one which is marketed in tablets.
The present paper deals with the following questions: Can a piece of any tissue or organ obtained at autopsies and/or biopsies be analyzed to predict the organ and/or body burden, initial exposures, and the committed dose equivalents to the workers or retired workers from exposures to thorium, uranium, and plutonium and what are the consequences of using such materials in predicting the initial exposures and the dose estimates? Based on the studies of the distribution of uranium and thorium in former uranium miners and millers, the distribution of plutonium in general population, and several other studies dealing with the distribution of actinides in man, it is reasonable to state that the utilization of tissue analyses for estimating the initial exposure to the workers may have serious limitations. The regulatory agencies must restrict the conditional utilization of tissue analyses in estimating exposures to the workers for thorium, uranium, and plutonium.
Authors:R. Borio, A. Rongoni, D. M. S. Saetta, D. Desideri, and C. Roselli
In the last years the interest in drinking and mineral water radioactivity has grown. Recently national and EU regulations
replaced the previous drinking water norms with the aim to strengthen consumers security concerning drinking water quality.
Perugia and Urbino Universities carried out a joint study on the radiological characterization of the water destined for human
consumption in the Umbria region. The aim of this work was to produce a map of the radon and tritium concentrations in the
water of this area as a basis for the implementation of hydrogeological knowledge and to determine a possible related radiological
risk for the local population.222Rn measurements were performed by liquid scintillation and gamma-spectrometry and3H measurements by liquid scintillation. Up to now, the222Rn concentrations ranged 5.9-65.79 Bq/l and3H concentrations are always lower than the detection limit (8.6 Bq/l).
Authors:Miguel Salas-Luevano, Eduardo Manzanares-Acuña, Consuelo Letechipia-de Leon, Víctor Hernandez-Davila, and Hector Vega-Carrillo
Lead concentration in soils has been measured in Vetagrande, an old mining town located at the state of Zacatecas in México.
Eighty nine soils samples were analyzed using Energy Dispersive X-ray Fluorescence. The lead concentrations were treated with
the Kriging method in order to estimate the lead concentration distribution in the studied area. Pb levels in soils were from
8 to 7730 μg kg−1, where 28.1% of soil samples have less than 400 μg kg−1, 71.9% is above 400 μg kg−1 which is the maximum level recommended by the EPA for residential use of soil. Lead concentration measured around public
sites represent a risk of lead intake in the population.
Authors:J. H. Zaidi, I. Fatima, M. Arif, and I. H. Qureshi
Extensive use of coffee, by one-third of world's population, entails the evaluation of trace element contents in it. Instrumental
neutron activation analysis (INAA) was successfully employed to determine the concentration of 20 trace elements (essential,
toxic and nonessential) in four samples of coffee beans of various origins and two instant coffee brands most commonly consumed
in Pakistan. This study provides the base-line values of certain toxic and essential elements in coffee. The daily intake
of essential and toxic elements through coffee was estimated and compared with the recommended values. The cumulative intake
of Mn is four times higher than the recommended value and that of toxic elements is well below the tolerance limits.
Authors:H. Papaefthymiou, B. Symeopoulos, and M. Soupioni
Elemental concentrations and specific activity values of natural radionuclides were measured in lignite, bottom ash and fly
ash samples collected from the Megalopolis power plant A in southern Greece, using nuclear analytical techniques. The results
show that the elements As, Br, Mo, Sb, Se, and U were enriched in the lignite samples, the elements Mo, Se and U in bottom
ash, while fly ash samples were enriched in As, Mo, Sb, Se and U. Specific activity measurements also show that 238U (226Ra) activity values in lignite and both ash samples were high relative to the corresponding data for coal and earth crust
given in the literature. As a high quantity of fly ash is produced during the operation of the lignite power plant A, this
power plant should be considered as a major source of air particulate pollution and radiation to the population living in
the vicinity of lignite burning power plant.
Authors:C. Dueñas, M. Fernandez, E. Liger, S. Cañete, A. Fernandez, and R. Perez
The measurements of radioactivity in drinking water enable us to determine the exposure of the population to radiation through
their usual consumption of water. An intensive study of the water supply in the city of Malaga has been carried out to determine
both the gross alpha-and gross beta-activity concentrations. Gamma spectrometry was used in order to detect certain types
of radionuclides. Results indicated that 95% of the water tested contained a gross alpha-radioactivity of less than 0.1 Bq/1,
and 100% gross beta-activity of less than 1 Bq/1 — the activity limit recommended by the Spanish Regulatory Organization.
Several factors were found to have an influence on radioactivity levels, such as total hardness, potassium and pH.
Uranium mining and milling activities usually generate an enhancement of radionuclide concentrations in the environment that
may cause increased radiological exposure to mankind. For risk assessment and radiological protection of man and environment
in these areas, usually, it is needed to implement radiological surveillance of water, soils, agricultural products, aerosols,
and mining waste discharges as well. Radionuclides to be monitored in priority are alpha-emitting nuclides of the uranium
natural series. Radioactivity analysis of materials from uranium mining areas of Portugal shows departure from secular radioactive
equilibrium amongst uranium series radionuclides, thus rendering invalid the assumption of equilibrium and requiring the actual
determination of each radionuclide. Radionuclide measurements performed with high resolution alphaspectrometry, as reported
herein, produce accurate results on specific radionuclides that are essential in computing radiation doses to critical groups
of the population.
Authors:F. Groppi, H. S. Mainardi, A. Martinotti, S. Morzenti, and M. L. Bonardi
Many labeled compounds are used as radiopharmaceuticals (RP), for emission imaging and metabolic radiotherapy and contain as labeling agents γ, β-, β+, monochromatic e- and α emitting radionuclides (RN). These labeled compounds very often contain unexpected radionuclidic impurities. Some long-lived isotopic and non-isotopic impurities lead to undesirable radiation doses to the patient and his relatives, as well as to medical/paramedical personnel, other than the general population, due to rad-waste of contaminated specimen and excretion of biological fluids. Use was made of liquid scintillation counting/spectrometry (LSCS) for the detection of tiny amounts of charged particle emitting impurities in RPs labeled with 64Cu, 67Ga, 90Y, 90Sr/90Y, 123I, 153Sm, 177Lu and 201Tl.
The raw material used in the production of fetilizers is phosphate ore containing various amounts of naturally radioactive elements. During phosphate ore processing, owing to chemical properties of radium, practically all226Ra gets incorporated into phosphogypsum and becomes the main source of radioactivity. This study was carried out in a fertilizer factory in central Croatia, which may represent a site of significant environmental contamination due to fertilizer production and phosphogypsum deposition in the area. The purpose of this paper was to determine whether ingestion of drinking water in this area poses a health risk for the inhabitants. The results of our study confirmed the occurrence of226Ra in elevated concentrations in the samples of trickling waters. However, concurrent analyses of drinking water indicated that the risk of adverse health effects for the population living in the vicinity of a phosphate fertilizer plant is negligible.