Neutron activation analysis, inductively coupled plasma emission spectrometry(ICP-ES) and atomic absorption spectroscopy (AAS) have been used to determineactual daily dietary intakes of minerals and trace elements in the Iranianpopulation. This article deals with the trace elemental analysis of dailydiets of the Iranian population differentiated with respect to food habits,geographical variability, literacy and income. Three study groups in fiveregions were defined. Thirty total daily diet samples were prepared basedon the method of dietary records. Also a few samples representing the intakesof two other study groups, males and females, were prepared by the duplicatediet method. Therefore, this study not only covered representative dietarypatterns of almost all adult people in Iran in a pilot study, but it alsopermitted to check the validity of the sampling methodology for total mixeddiet simulation.
The influence of stages of lactation on the mineral and trace elementconcentrations of breast milk collected from 20 healthy lactating women ina Nigeria population was investigated using instrumental neutron activationanalysis (INAA) and proton induced X-ray emission (PIXE) analysis. The breastmilk samples were divided into colostrum (day 1–5), transitional (day6–13) and mature milk (day 14–28). The result of the study showthat colostrum milk has a significantly higher mean concentration of Ca, Cl,Cu, Fe, Mg, Na and Zn than the transitional and mature milk. Furthermore,the mean concentrations of Fe, Mg, Na and Zn in transitional milk were foundto be significantly higher when compared with the mature milk. It was alsoobserved from the semi-log plot of the concentration of the elements againstdays of lactation that the concentration of all the elements decreased significantlythroughout the lactation period studied with Cu, Fe and Zn concentration showingthe greatest decline, particularly in the early stages of lactation.
Authors:D. Swindle, R. Pearson, N. Wogman, and P. Krey
The sensitivity of environmental sampling and analysis for the estimated atmospheric concentrations of radionuclides in effluents from clandestine nuclear facilities may require many sampling sites and exorbitant costs to monitor such large areas. An assessment has been made of the key factors necessary to support the operation of a nuclear facility, e.g., the existence of a nearby transportation network, main electrical power supply, and population centers. Screening, the subject of this paper, evaluates how cartographic data and satellite imagery can be used to identify areas most capable of supporting undeclared nuclear operations. As a result, large geographical areas can be eliminated from environmental monitoring and sampling. This leads to reduced costs, a reduction in the number of sampling sites required, and a reduction in the overall level of effort required to accomplish effective environmental monitoring. The screening methodology and techniques are described and examples given.
This paper gives the average ingestion levels of137Cs, released during the Chernobyl accident, for three population groups living in different regions of Italy. The ingestions were determined experimentally by measuring reconstructed total diets that were collected in the three areas.A comparison between this data and the ingestion levels, estimated by using the137Cs concentration levels measured in single food products and the national food consumption data, shows that the last method over-estimates the ingestion.Finally, it is shown that the ingestion levels of137Cs, as determined by measuring the reconstructed total diets, the internal body burden as measured directly by whole body counting, and urinary excretion are consistant.
Authors:Y. Takizawa, L. Zhao, M. Yamamoto, T. Abe, and K. Ueno
To determine the levels of210Pb and210Po in human tissues of people in Japan, various tissue samples were obtained at autopsy from the cadavers of 22 oncologic cases, mainly in Niigata Prefecture in northern Japan, from 1986 to 1988.Wet ashing, followed by electrochemical deposition and alpha spectrometry were used to separate and determine the210Pb and210Po present. Among the tissues analyzed, the highest concentrations of210Pb and210Po were observed in bone (sternum), liver, and kidneys. The total body burden of210Pb and210Po was found to be approximately 427 pCi and 514 pCi, respectively. This estimated210Po value did not differ significantly from values found in populations in the U.S.A. and European countries.
Authors:V. Spate, M. Mason, C. Reams, C. Baskett, J. Morris, and D. Mills
In this study we report on the comparison between the total selenium in serum (total Se) with that which is apparently bound to high molecular weight (>12,000 D) species, presumably proteins (bound Se). Nine hundred seventy seven (977) serum samples arising out of a population-based epidemiological study were prepared in duplicate for the determination of total Se by pipeting directly into irradiation vials; and separate duplicate aliquots were dialyzed against DI water for the determination of bound Se. All samples were analyzed by neutron activation analysis via77mSe (17.4 s). A small dialyzable Se component (6%) (free Se), defined as the difference between the total Se minus the bound Se, was identified.
A method is proposed by which the significance of the differences between trace element concentrations of sample and control
can be estimated without detailed knowledge of the distribution in the total population. Both sample and control are cut in
half and the trace element concentrations of all four pieces are determined. The concentration values of the two halves of
each sample are compared with each other and so are the concentration values of the two samples. This cross-comparison is
essentially the application of Student's t-test to the smallest possible number of data. The calculation is reduced to a simple
formula, and tables of confidence limits are not needed. The implications of lack of general background knowledge are discussed.
Since it cannot always be known whether a certain trace element follows a normal or log-normal distribution pattern, or whether
simultaneously determined concentrations of several trace elements are correlated with each other, the most cautious estimate
of the significance is recommended.
The forensic activation analyst must often evaluate his own results as they relate to certain legal or moral situations, since
investigative officers, and courts of law are not usually competent to make judgements of the validity or meaning of scientific
data. In providing scientific evidence in court, two criteria for criminal identification must be met: (1) suspect's sample
should be similar to sample found at the scene of the crime, (2) samples relared to other people in the same statistical population
should not generally match that found at the crime site. When two or more specimens are submitted for comparison by NAA they
will usually fall into one of three classes: (a) materials about which we have partial or inconclusive data, (c) materials
with an excellent analytical data background. Ideally all cases would fall in category c; in practice, very few. Some examples
of cases and/or situations that fall into these three categories in both individual and corporate investigations are given.
Data are presented for210Po levels in edible parts of marine species significant in the diet of the Argentine population. The sample collection sites were situated between 35° and 45° S in the Atlantic Ocean. The specific activities obtained, expressed per wet veight and with a 95% confidence level, ranged between 31.3±9.1 mBq kg–1 for pollack (Genypterus blacodes) and 1790±280 mBq kg–1 for squid (Illex argentinus). Hake (Merluccius hubbsi) followed by squid are the major contributors to the dose. The annual committed effective doses were 0.7 mSv and 0.6 mSv and the effective collective doses were 24 man·Sv and 20 man·Sv, respectively, for these species. For the remainder, because of both their low consumption rates and low specific activities, the corresponding doses were negligible compared with the former.
Uranium (U) and thorium (Th) isotopes and their several radioactive descendants found in soil, rock, water, plants, air, etc., contribute to the natural radiation exposure of the population. Phosphate rocks are really rich natural sources of uranium and thorium among the other minerals forming the earth's crust. U and Th concentrations in some Egyptian phosphate samples were determined using a nuclear track registration methodology and -ray spectroscopy. The resulting latent tracks from all -decaying isotopes in both U and Th series were recorded in plastic detectors. A uniquely sensitive polycarbonate CR-39 nuclear detector was used. Results showed that the U and Th concentration in the samples studied range from about 4.0 up to 35.0 ppm and from 11.0 to 124.0 ppm, respectively. Results are discussed within the frame work of track formation methodology in plastic and -ray spectroscopic analysis.