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Acta Veterinaria Hungarica
Authors: Anna Maleszka, Nina Smolinska, Anna Nitkiewicz, Marta Kiezun, Kamil Dobrzyn, Joanna Czerwinska, Karol Szeszko, and Tadeusz Kaminski

The aim of this study was to compare the expression levels of adiponectin receptor 1 and adiponectin receptor 2 mRNAs and proteins in porcine ovaries during four stages (days 2 to 3, 10 to 12, 14 to 16, 17 to 19) of the oestrous cycle and to measure adiponectin plasma concentrations during the same phases of the cycle. Higher mRNA expression of adiponectin receptor 1 was detected in porcine granulosa cells than in corpora lutea and theca cells (P < 0.01). In contrast, higher gene expression of adiponectin receptor 2 occurred in newly developed and mature corpora lutea (P < 0.01). The adiponectin receptor 1 protein content was the highest in corpora lutea isolated on days 2 to 3 of the cycle and was the lowest in theca interna cells (P < 0.01). The profile of adiponectin receptor 2 protein was similar to that of adiponectin receptor 1. Adiponectin plasma concentrations were significantly higher throughout the luteal phase than in the follicular phase (P < 0.01). In conclusion, the presence of adiponectin receptor 1 and adiponectin receptor 2 mRNAs and proteins in the porcine ovary suggests that adiponectin may directly affect ovarian functions through its own specific receptors. The expression of both receptors and adiponectin plasma concentration were dependent on hormonal status related to the stage of the cycle.

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Blood serum clinical biochemical parameters of fasted BUT Big 8 male turkeys were determined at the ages of 3 days, 4, 8, 12, 16 and 20 weeks, for a follow-up of the developmental changes of some serum metabolites, enzymes and ions. The serum protein content (total protein, albumin, globulin) increased with age, indicating also the moulting-associated metabolic changes in the age interval from the 8th to the 12th weeks. Creatinine was shown to have a peak at 3 days of age (role of muscle activity in thermogenesis), while urate concentration sensitively reflected the dietary protein amount. Serum triglycerides peaked at the time of yolk catabolism, while cholesterol was shown to indicate the moulting, as was serum malondialdehyde. Serum sodium content increased throughout the study. Alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase activities increased along the ontogeny, while alkaline phosphatase activity decreased in parallel with the growth. Serum creatine kinase activity showed an over one-magnitude increase. General metabolic and enzymatic alterations were characteristic and applicable for the description of the ontogenetic development of a precocial (post-hatch triglyceride peak), large bodied, meat-type (lactate dehydrogenase, continuously increasing creatine kinase) bird species.

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The ruminal stability of Mepron M 85 and the effect of supplementation with Mepron M 85 on free methionine level of blood were studied in rumen-fistulated cows and rumen- and duodenum-fistulated growing bulls. In five rumen-fistulated cowsin situ69.5% and 64.6% of the methionine content of Mepron M 85 was found after ruminal incubation of 16 h and 24 h, respectively. Daily rations of the rumen-fistulated cows were supplemented with 15.0 g DL-methionine and 17.7 g Mepron M 85, which increased the free methionine level of blood from 13.64 (mol/L to 15.35 and 20.46 (mol/L, respectively, three hours after feeding. In the four rumen- and duodenum-fistulated growing bulls, supplementation with 15.0 g DL-methionine and 17.7 g Mepron M 85 increased the total methionine getting into the duodenum during 24 h from 14.99 g to 16.84 and 20.84 g, respectively. The influence of Mepron M 85 on milk production was studied in 35 pairs of Hungarian Fleckvieh × Holstein-Friesian cows. The animals were coupled on the basis of the number of finished lactations, milk production in the previous lactation, and the date of calving. Daily supplementation of 18.0 g Mepron M 85 increased daily milk production significantly (p < 0.05), by 1.24 litres. Milk fat content also increased significantly (from 3.10% to 3.19%, p < 0.05) in the experimental group. The supplementation did not influence milk protein content.

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Acta Veterinaria Hungarica
Authors: Viktor Jurkovich, Barbara Bognár, Krisztián Balogh, Mária Kovács-Weber, Kinga Fornyos, Rubina Tünde Szabó, Péter Kovács, László Könyves, and Miklós Mézes

Milk yield, milk ingredients, health and other, production-related parameters of subclinically infected, Mycobacterium avium ssp. paratuberculosis (MAP-) shedding (positive faecal PCR, n = 20) and non-shedding (negative faecal PCR, n = 10) dairy cows were compared in the period from 10 days prepartum to 120 days postpartum. Body condition, rumen fill and faeces scores were lower in the MAP-shedding cows. There was no significant difference in plasma or urine metabolic parameters between the groups. Milk yield and lactose content tended to be lower (P = 0.074 and 0.077, respectively), somatic cell count tended to be higher (P = 0.097), while milk fat content was significantly higher (P = 0.006) in MAP-shedding cows than in the controls. Milk protein content did not differ between the groups. All other health and production parameters [number of reproductive tract treatments, number of udder treatments, number of artificial inseminations (AIs), calving interval, and service period] were significantly better in the control group. It is concluded that MAP infection, even in a subclinical form, has a significant impact on some production and health parameters of dairy cows.

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Durum wheat (Triticum turgidum L. Desf.) is a species well adapted to the Mediterranean environments where salt stress due to seawater intrusion is an increasing problem. The purpose of this study was to deep insight into the relationships among physiological, productive and qualitative aspects under salinity, being these aspects still poorly investigated in durum wheat. In 2004–2005 crop season 10 durum wheat genotypes of different origin and breeding time were grown in a naturally-lit polycarbonate greenhouse under three irrigation water salinity levels (0.9, 6.0 and 12.0 dS m−1). A complete randomized block design with three replications was adopted. The osmotic damage was evaluated by estimating relative water content (RWC), leaf water potential (Φw) and osmotic potential at full turgor (Φπ100). The toxic damage to the plants was evaluated by measuring Na+ accumulation and Na+/K+ ratio in the leaves. Differences in yield performance were evaluated by assessing the main yield components and some qualitative traits, carotenoid pigment and protein content and Sedimentation test in sodium dodecyl sulphate. A significant effect of genotype, salt stress and of their interaction on all the characters was observed. Durum wheat genotypes generally showed a moderate tolerance to salt stress. The genotype performance was dependent on stress level and RWC maintenance. Osmotic adjustment and low sodium accumulation were found to play a key role in salt tolerance. An improvement in the grain quality characters on increasing salinity level, consistently with a yield decrease, was observed.

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In this study, two green microalgae, Dunaliella bardawil and Chlorella ellipsoidea , are exposed to different pH values. The two tested microalgae could grow in a wide range of pH (4–9 for D. bardawil and 4–10 for C. ellipsoidea ). The dry weight gain and the biochemical components of D. bardawil were greatly enhanced at pH 7.5. On the contrary, dry weight and carbohydrate content of C. ellipsoidea attained their maximum values at the alkaline pH. On the other hand, the protein content of C. ellipsoidea recorded its highest value at pH 4, while the pigment content of the same alga highly accumulated at pH 4, 6 and 7.5 and decreased as pH directed to the alkaline side. Both pH 6 and pH 9 stimulated the accumulation of vitamin E and vitamin C in D. bardawil , with the highest values of the three compounds recorded at pH 9. In case of C. ellipsoidea , β-carotene content increased at pH 6 and 10 as compared with control, but the amount of β-carotene was much higher at pH 6 than at pH 10. Contrarily, vitamin E was highly accumulated in C. ellipsoidea cells at pH 10 than at pH6. BothpH6 andpH10 caused a significant decline in vitaminCcontent in C. ellipsoidea .

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Cereal Research Communications
Authors: Georg Drezner, Kresimir Dvojkovic, Daniela Horvat, Dario Novoselovic, Alojzije Lalic, Darko Babic, and Josip Kovacevic

Trials with seven genotypes of winter wheat were set up as RCB design at four locations in continental part of Croatia in three repetitions during 2004 and 2005 year. Grain yield and indirect quality traits were analyzed. Statistically significant differences for all traits were found among cultivars (G), locations (L) and years (Y), and for all interactions (GxL, GxY, LxY, GxLxY) except for the interaction GxLxY for protein and wet gluten content and for the interaction term GxL for grain yield. In 2004 year higher grain yields were realized as compared to 2005. The same trend has been reached for all analysed quality traits (2004 was better than 2005) except for sedimentation value. The highest grain yields, test weights and wet gluten content were realized at location Osijek. Highest protein content and sedimentation value were found at location Nova Gradiska. The most yielding genotypes with lowest coefficient of variation for grain yield over locations and years were Seva, Demetra and Srpanjka, while the most favorable quality traits with the lowest coefficient of variation were found for Golubica, Zitarka and Panonka.

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Abstract  

Thermal neutron capture prompt gamma-ray activation analysis (PGAA) was used to determine mass fractions of H, B, C, N, Na, Cl, K, and S in 2 meat homogenates. Twelve units of candidate Standard Reference Material (SRM) 1546 Meat Homogenate produced by the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) were analyzed to provide NIST with certification data. This SRM is a realistic processed food matrix, ideal for food analysis programs such as the Food and Drug Administration's Total Diet Study. Another meat homogenate, Certified Reference Material LGC 7002 Pork/Chicken (along with NIST SRMs 1549 Non-Fat Milk Powder and 1571 Orchard Leaves) was analyzed for quality control. Candidate SRM 1546 unit-to-unit heterogeneity was <2% for H, Na, Cl, and K, and 3.5% for N and within-unit heterogeneity was <2% for H, N, Cl, and K, and 2.9% for Na, similar to LGC 7002 homogeneity results. Control material mass fractions agreed well with certificate and consensus values. Protein mass fractions, calculated from N results, were 15.2% and 11.9% for candidate SRM 1546 and LGC 7002, respectively. Protein content calculated for SRM 1549 (36.0%) agreed well with known values for dried non-fat milk powder.

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A total of 32 bacterial isolates including Mesorhizobium (N=10), Azotobacter (N=12) and phosphate-solubilizing bacteria (N=10) were isolated and tested for siderophore, HCN, ammonia, indole acetic acid production and phosphate solubilization in vitro . The bacterial cultures were positive for siderophore, HCN and ammonia. Among the isolates, M. ciceri RC3 and A. chrococcum A4 displayed 35 and 14 μg ml −1 of IAA, respectively, whereas Bacillus produced 19 ( Bacillus PSB1) and 17 μg ml −1 ( Bacillus PSB10) of IAA in Luria Bertani broth. The diameter of the P solubilization zone varied between 4 ( Bacillus PSB1) and 5 mm ( Bacillus PSB10) and a considerable amount of tricalcium phosphate (7 and 8 μg ml −1 by Bacillus PSB1 and Bacillus PSB10, respectively) was released in liquid medium, with a concomitant drop in pH. The effects of N 2 -fixing and PS bacteria on the growth, chlorophyll content, seed yield, grain protein and N uptake of chickpea plants in field trials varied considerably between the treatments. Nodule number and biomass were significantly greater at 90 days after sowing (DAS), decreasing by 145 DAS. Seed yield increased by 250% due to inoculation with M. ciceri RC3 + A. chroococcum A4 + Bacillus PSB10, relative to the control treatment. Grain protein content ranged from 180 ( Bacillus PSB1) to 309 ng g −1 ( M. ciceri RC3 + A. chroococcum A4 + Bacillus PSB10) in inoculated chickpea. The N contents in roots and shoots differed considerably among the treatments.

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In a three-year model experiment the water deficiency resistance and the quality of yield were investigated in the case of soybean and bean cultivars of determined growth. The plants were grown under irrigated and non-irrigated conditions, modelling the conditions of drought. The soybean cultivars used a considerably higher amount of water before reaching the green pod maturity stage than the bean cultivars. Their water use under water stress decreased considerably (46%), in contrast with beans, where this decrease was only 18–21%. This correlates with the vegetation period of the varieties, their water use in certain vegetation periods and the development of their roots. The roots of beans determine the size of the yield and that of water circulation but only affects the formation of pods in a few varieties. The roots of soybean cultivars affect the size of yield and the quality of seeds as well. This is especially important in organic matter circulation under water-deficient conditions. If the roots are small, the dry matter and oil contents increase more intensively in the seed, but this has no effect on the protein content of the seeds. The small root mass and small specific leaf area (SLA) of the early soybean cultivar McCall and the Hungold variety of beans decreased yield losses under water deficiency conditions, in contrast with the mid-late maturing soybean variety Evans, where this was not experienced.

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