In a three-year model experiment the water deficiency resistance and the quality of yield were investigated in the case of soybean and bean cultivars of determined growth. The plants were grown under irrigated and non-irrigated conditions, modelling the conditions of drought. The soybean cultivars used a considerably higher amount of water before reaching the green pod maturity stage than the bean cultivars. Their water use under water stress decreased considerably (46%), in contrast with beans, where this decrease was only 18–21%. This correlates with the vegetation period of the varieties, their water use in certain vegetation periods and the development of their roots. The roots of beans determine the size of the yield and that of water circulation but only affects the formation of pods in a few varieties. The roots of soybean cultivars affect the size of yield and the quality of seeds as well. This is especially important in organic matter circulation under water-deficient conditions. If the roots are small, the dry matter and oil contents increase more intensively in the seed, but this has no effect on the protein content of the seeds. The small root mass and small specific leaf area (SLA) of the early soybean cultivar McCall and the Hungold variety of beans decreased yield losses under water deficiency conditions, in contrast with the mid-late maturing soybean variety Evans, where this was not experienced.
Authors:F. Vučajnk, S. Trdan, G. Leskošek, I.J. Košir, A. Sreš, D. Kocjan Ačko, and M. Vidrih
In 2014 and 2015, we studied the effect of fungicide spraying with 11 different nozzles on the quality and quantity of head and leaf fungicide deposit, the percentage of Fusarium head blight (FHB) incidence, FHB index, the DON content, yield and grain quality parameters. The best quality and quantity of fungicide deposit on the front and rear head sides was achieved with the TeeJet Turbo FloodJet TF VP2 nozzle (FLOOD) and the Albuz AVI-TWIN 110-03 nozzle (AVI). In comparison with the majority of treatments, the FHB incidence and the FHB index was the highest on the unsprayed control. The FHB index was higher using the Lechler IDK 120-03 nozzle (IDK) than with the other nozzle types. In all the treatments, the DON content in the grain was less than 50 μg/kg. At this very low level of infection this is not surprising. The grain yield was the smallest on the unsprayed control. Better fungicide coverage of wheat heads with the FLOOD and AVI nozzles did not result in a statistically higher yield or better grain quality parameters. Negative correlations were confirmed between yield and variables as DON content, FHB incidence and FHB index and also between falling number and variables as fungicide coverage, FHB incidence and FHB index. Positive correlations were determined between DON content and FHB incidence, between hectolitre weight and variables as spray deposit and coverage and between protein content and variables as spray deposit and coverage.
Authors:M. Safar-Noori, D.V.M. Assaha, and H. Saneoka
Drought stress severely reduces wheat productivity and affects grain quality. In this study the effects of combined application of salicylic acid (SA) and potassium (K) on yield and grain quality of wheat under drought stress condition was investigated. Winter wheat cultivar Minaminokaori was grown in pots in a greenhouse, and subjected to 3 levels of K (50, 100 and 200 kg ha–1) fertilizer applications. The plants were foliar sprayed with SA (0.7 mM) at heading stage, and then imposed to the drought stress until grain maturity. Drought stress decreased grain yield by 41.1%, starch content by 10.2% and water-soluble pentosan content by 3.5% in comparison to well-irrigated control. However, grain crude protein content, total pentosan content and phytate phosphorus content were increased by 33.0%, 17.9%, and 13.4% respectively. Under the same drought condition, the application of combined SA and high K levels has increased grain yield (13.3%), starch (12.2%) and water-soluble pentosan content (20.3%) compared to SA-untreated with low level of K fertilizer. In addition, SA application decreased the percentage of phytate phosphorus to total phosphorus under drought stress. These results suggested that combined treatment of SA foliar application and a higher doses of K fertilizer can partially improve wheat productivity, grain nutritional quality, particularly water-soluble pentosan that influences the bread-making quality, without increasing the anti-nutrient component phytate under drought stress condition.
Authors:L. Levy Häner, P. Stamp, M. Kreuzer, A. Bouguennec, and D. Pellet
Low viscosity in cereals is important for monogastric livestock feeding. With respect to triticale, knowledge on the variability of its viscosity and its environmental dependence is deplorably low. Six winter varieties with similar earliness at maturity were chosen that covered a large range of potential applied viscosity (PAV) (individual values ranging from 1.8 to 4.9 ml/g). These were cultivated in four locations in Switzerland, at altitudes ranging between 430 and 700 m a.s.l., in 2008 and 2009. The effect of genotype on the PAV was significant and clearly influenced by the location factor. Although variety × location and variety × year interactions were rather low, they were still very important for the PAV compared with other variables such as grain yield and specific grain weight. The PAV expression of one variety seemed not to be susceptible to environmental conditions. The varietal range in viscosity demonstrates a high potential for breeding to raise quality, especially as the viscosity and the grain yield were not correlated. The favourable relationship between the PAV and protein content found in the present study may provide a further incentive to improve this trait to yield high-quality triticale. Existing variability might be used to guide the choice of favourable varieties.
Authors:T. Molnár, B. Kucska, A. Szabó, J. Biró, M. Bercsényi, and Cs. Hancz
A feeding experiment was conducted on northern pike, Esox lucius L. (123.6±33.3 g initial body weight) applying graded dietary fish oil supplementation resulting three dietary fat levels (without supplementation: 6.2% fat and 11.7, 17.4% fat levels with supplementations) in a recirculation system. Feed consumption, feed efficiency and protein utilization of pike was not affected by the treatment. Whole body lipid content analysis showed that the composition of pike was significantly affected by the increasing level of fish oil supplementation, although no relationship was detected between the dietary and the fillet lipid content, as well as the protein content of fish bodies. High docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, C22:6n-3) proportions were found in the muscle lipids (groups fed fish oil supplementation), as compared to the dietary fatty acid compositions suggesting that with dietary fish oil supplementation the dietary precursors (mainly EPA) enable pike to convert long chain highly unsaturated fatty acids, especially DHA; resulting high DHA: EPA ratios in the fillet.
Thermal neutron capture prompt gamma-ray activation analysis (PGAA) was used to determine mass fractions of H, B, C, N, Na, Cl, K, and S in 2 meat homogenates. Twelve units of candidate Standard Reference Material (SRM) 1546 Meat Homogenate produced by the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) were analyzed to provide NIST with certification data. This SRM is a realistic processed food matrix, ideal for food analysis programs such as the Food and Drug Administration's Total Diet Study. Another meat homogenate, Certified Reference Material LGC 7002 Pork/Chicken (along with NIST SRMs 1549 Non-Fat Milk Powder and 1571 Orchard Leaves) was analyzed for quality control. Candidate SRM 1546 unit-to-unit heterogeneity was <2% for H, Na, Cl, and K, and 3.5% for N and within-unit heterogeneity was <2% for H, N, Cl, and K, and 2.9% for Na, similar to LGC 7002 homogeneity results. Control material mass fractions agreed well with certificate and consensus values. Protein mass fractions, calculated from N results, were 15.2% and 11.9% for candidate SRM 1546 and LGC 7002, respectively. Protein content calculated for SRM 1549 (36.0%) agreed well with known values for dried non-fat milk powder.
Authors:J. P. Zhou, Y. Cheng, L. L. Zang, E. N. Yang, C. Liu, X. L. Zheng, K. J. Deng, Y. Q. Zhu, and Y. Zhang
In this study, a new substitution line, 12-5-1, with 42 chromosomes that was derived from BC3F2 descendants of the hybridization between Triticum aestivum cv. CN19 and Aegilops biuncialis was created and reported. The 12-5-1 was immune to both powdery mildew and stripe rust and has stable fertility. Multi-color fluorescence in situ hybridization indicated that 12-5-1 was a substitution line 1Mb(1B). The seed storage protein electrophoresis showed that 12-5-1 presented high molecular weight glutenin subunits (2 + 12) of CN19 and a new subunit designated as M which apparently originated from parent Ae. biuncialis, and absent 7 + 8 subunits. Additionally, the flour quality parameters showed that the protein content, Zeleny sedimentation value, wet gluten content, and grain hardness and mixing time of 12-5-1 were signifiantly higher than those of its parent CN19. Moreover, 5 pairs of the chromosome 1Mb-specifi polymerase chain reaction-based landmark unique gene markers, TNAC1021, TNAC1026, TNAC1041, TNAC1-02 and TNAC1-04, were also obtained. The new substitution line 1Mb(1B) 12-5-1 could be a valuable source for wheat improvement, especially for wheat end product quality and resistance to disease.
Authors:W.T. Xue, A. Gianinetti, R. Wang, Z.J. Zhan, J. Yan, Y. Jiang, T. Fahima, G. Zhao, and J.P. Cheng
Crop seeds are the main staples in human diet, especially in undeveloped countries. In any case, the diet needs to be rich not only in macro-nutrients like carbohydrates and protein, but also in micro-nutrients. Nevertheless, both the macro- and micro-nutrients presented in seeds largely vary in consequence of field and environment conditions. In this research, 60 lines of a barley RILs population segregating for the SSR marker Hvm74, which is genetically linked to the GPC (grain protein content) locus (HvNAM-1), were studied in 4 environments (two growing years and two field managements) by carrying out a comprehensive profile of seed macro- (starch, total nitrogen and total soluble protein) and micro-nutrients (phytate, phenolics, flavonoids, Pi, Zn and Fe). Under field conditions, all the components were largely affected by the environment, but TN (total nitrogen) exhibited high genotype contribution, while micro-nutrients displayed higher genotype × environments interactions (GEI) than macro-nutrients. In order to approach the effects of carbon-nitrogen (C–N) balance on other seed components, two C/N ratios were calculated: C/TN (CNR1) and C/TSP (CNR2). CNR2 exhibited stronger negative correlations with all micro-nutrients. Hence, the significant GEI and its negative relationships with CNR2 highlighted the different characters of micro-nutrients in barley seeds.
Authors:M. F. El-Kramany, A. A. Bahr, and A. M. Gomaa
A pot trial was carried out in the greenhouse of the National Research Centre during the summer season of 1999 to investigate the combined impact of Bradyrhizobium sp. (vigna) and Azotobacter vinelandii in the presence of various doses of chemical fertilizers, i.e. 25%, 50% and 100% of the recommended dose of NPK, on nodulation, growth parameters, seed yield and its components, and seed contents of protein, phosphorus and potassium of a local (Kawmy-1) and three exotic (VC-4, VC-9 and King) varieties of mungbean. The results indicated that there were no significant differences between the different varieties for nodule number per plant, while significant variations were obtained between both varieties and biofertilization treatments. The plants of the Kawmy-1 variety gave the shortest period of growth, the highest number of pods per plant and the highest values of harvest index and seed protein content. The King variety had the longest period of growth and the highest values for number of branches, seed yield, biological yield, seed index and seed phosphorus content. The inclusion of Azotobacter vinelandii significantly augmented various tested parameters, with the exception of seed yield, biological yield and potassium content, in comparison with Bradyrhizobium. Insignificant differences were found owing to the interaction between varieties, various levels of mineral fertilizers and types of biofertilizers with the exception of harvest index and seed phosphorus content.
Authors:K.J. Deng, J.P. Zhou, X.H. Wu, G. Sun, T. Wang, A.T. Tang, X.L. Zheng, and Y. Zhang
It is well demonstrated that wheat-rye 1BL/1RS translocated chromosome leads to some valuable novel traits such as disease resistance, high yield and functional stay-green after anthesis. To understand the physiological mechanism of 1BL/1RS translocation responsible for osmotic stress, two wheat cultivars, CN12 and CN17, carrying the translocated chromosome and MY11 without the translocated chromosome were employed in the study. During 5-day osmotic stress, fresh weight inhibition, chlorophyll content, soluble protein content, MDA concentration, antioxidant enzymes activity and free polyamines content were examined. CN12 and CN17, especially cultivar CN17, registered greater biomass and minor oxidative damage compared with their wheat parent. Meanwhile, the concentration of Spd and Spm in CN17 was significantly higher than the others. In addition, we found a positive correlation of fresh weight inhibition (FWI) and Put concentration, and a negative one with the parameters (Spd + Spm): Put ratio, indicating the importance of higher polyamine (Spd and Spm) accumulation on the adaptation to osmotic stress. Therefore, we proposed that the accumulation of higher polyamines (Spd and Spm) should play an important role on the adaptation of 1BL/1RS translocation lines to osmotic stress and might be important factors for the origin of novel traits introduced by 1BL/1RS.