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A sztoikus filozófusok állatokkal és vegetarianizmussal kapcsolatos nézeteiről eddig nem született tanulmány. Ennek magyarázata az, hogy a sztoikusok az állatoknak önmagukban nem szenteltek nagy figyelmet. A sztoikus filozófia középpontjában az ember és az embernek az istenekhez fűződő viszonya áll. Mindazonáltal az ember maga is a „lelkes élőlények” (ἔμψυχoν) csoportjába tartozik, ugyanonnan indul, ahonnan az állatok, csak éppen az „értelem” (λóγoς) kifejlődésével célja magasabb szintre emelődik: a természet elsődleges kívánalmairól az erényre. Tanulmányomban a sztoikusok állatokkal szembeni hozzáállását vizsgálom meg az ókori források alapján, különös tekintettel a húsevés és a vegetarianizmus problémájára. Az első részben az állati és az emberi lélek ismeretelméleti különbségét tárgyalom, a másodikban az állatok lételméleti helyzetét, a gondviselés kérdését és a teleológiát. Az elemzés során a sztoikus filozófusok bámulatos egységre törekvése mögött felsejlenek azok a belső ellentmondások, amelyektől egyetlen olyan rendszer sem lehet mentes, amely végső és egységes magyarázattal kíván szolgálni a világ jelenségeire.

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Abstract  

Beginning with a review of ecocriticism’s scholarly and activist origins and development through the related fields of eco-composition, ecofeminist literary criticism, and environmental justice literary studies, this essay discusses children’s environmental literature from the intersecting standpoints of animal studies, environmental justice, and ecofeminist literary criticism. From that intersectional standpoint, the essay raises three central questions for examining children’s environmental literature, and offers six boundary conditions for an ecopedagogy of children’s environmental literature.

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References APWG 2015 APWG : https://animalpalaeopathologywg.wordpress.com Baker–Brothwell 1980 J. R. Baker — D. Brothwell : Animal Diseases in Archaeology . Academic Press , London 1980 . Bartosiewicz et al. 1997 L

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Through a careful examination of the accounts of Daqin (大秦) — presumably the Roman Empire — and Fulin (拂菻) — Byzantinum —, we can depict a picture of how the Chinese imagined another ancient empire far away in the West. The Chinese annals not only give information on and the interpretation of the name of that mysterious country but also add details about its geography, administration, economy — including agriculture, domesticated animals and products -, trade and the envoys sent by Daqin (大秦) people. Such a description could be remarkable on its own but the accounts also emphasise the similarities between the two great empires that might have originated in their same cultural level.

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This study deals with the Ancient Latin and Old Hungarian adaptations of the most drastic myth of Tereus, Philomela and Progne. Ovid inserted the story into the 6th book of the Metamomorphoses (lines 424–674). István Gyöngyösi, called “Hungarian Ovid” by right, adapted an Ovidian text in compliance with baroque literary and translation aspects. The translation makes part of the poem called Csalárd Cupido (Fraudulent Cupido) composed in hardly identifiable epic genre in the 17th century. The Ovidian insertion became the third part of the four-part poem, focusing on the demonstration of the outrages caused by Cupido. The main characteristics of the Gyöngyösi’s adaptation are: the domestication (for example in the case of the Dionysian rites), the large insertions, the enlargement and amplification, the borrowings and changings of the motifs and patterns and the spectacular actualisation. The motive of the fire is, for example, much more emphased in the Hungarian version. Both of the authors makes capital of the rhetorics, but the Hungarian text turns up the rhetorical elements and uses them as the instrument or device of the retardation and of the itemization or specification. The animal motifs being found several times in the text are used to exagerate or heighten the drastic apspects and to point out to demonstrate some animal qualities of the human beeings.

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This article deals with a little researched area which touches on set phraseological units in Bulgarian language and how they differ from their free counterparts. The study focuses on phraseological units expressing peoples' characteristics, which are based on associations with the animal world. These units rely primarily on common aspects of animal and human behaviour, which has bred set phraseological combinations in language.The authors have analyzed the principle semes in the discussed examples because only through exploring their specific nature will it become possible to examine the relationships between the vivid semantics of zoonome phraseological units and the character of their components. Research shows that set zoonome phraseological units based on the names of pets are much more frequently used in language than those based on the names of wild fowl.The paper distinguishes between three semantically different types of phraseological units - 'man as a living creature', 'man as an intelligent creature' and 'man as a social creature'. The main implications of the study are that zoonome components of phraseological units contribute to a more diverse description of man, bringing to the foreground a variety of characteristics about him. They also serve to express abstract notions, as well as to evaluate personality.

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Abstract  

Although nature looms large throughout Homer’s Odyssey, literary critics have entirely neglected to discuss his construction of the natural world in this foundational Western work. This neglect might be the result of two factors: the blurred line between geographical and fantastical locales in Odysseus’ travels and the blurred line between natural forces and deities. This essay recognizes that Homer not only reconstructs the Mediterranean world in his epic through detailed references to weather, geology, plants, birds, and animals but also that his similes suggest a consciousness of inter-species relationships. Principally, however, this essay argues, as does William Cronon, that “relationships, processes, and systems are as ecological as they are cultural,” and that Odysseus’ response to nature may usefully be understood in relation to three ecocritical models: the anthropocentric or domination model, the stewardship model, and the biomorphic model. His exploitative and aggressive behavior toward the Cyclopes, Circe, and the cattle of the Sun is contrasted with his recognition upon his homecoming of his own animal nature and his appreciation of the agrarian and pastoral life. While the tradition of writing in The Odyssey genre has vigorously continued in Western literature, only recently have contemporary environmental writers moved toward a recognition of the threat of the anthropocentric perspective to the imperative of working toward the stewardship and biomorphic models.

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As bas-reliefs of a similar standard are not known in the early Bizantine world, the styles of the figures and the ornamental elements of the jug are compared to the relief works of other fields of art (silver toreutics, ebony carvings, plastic relief, mosaics), since they met the same ideological and aesthetic demands, which necessarily led to the same stylistic solutions (figure-carpets-style) . The scenes are characteristically divided into isolated zones without the existence of a narrative contact. The isolated scenes represent combats between people and animals (venation) in their pure dramatic appearances. This suspense is eased by the agility that can be read from the posture of the hunters. Yet they are hunting scenes and as antithetic combats they bear isolated effects on the spectators. The representation of the people and the animal is true to nature, they do not cover each other and thus they have strong contours and a more emphatic plasticity. Contrary to the individual scenes, the composition of the friezes on the Budakalász jug does not give a dynamic impression since the scale relations are diverse in the individual scenes. A definite aspiration to a formal abstraction can be felt in the composition of the friezes and the order of the scenes. The message is cyclically repeated in the cyclical iteration of the endless series of pictures. The hunter is not an everyday person: he is a hero (heros) who triumphs (virtus) over the difficulties of life.

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Abstract  

Two widely read Chinese novels of the past 20 years—Gao Xingjian’s Soul Mountain (1990) and Jiang Rong’s Wolf Totem (2004)—echo Henry David Thoreau’s proclamation (in his essay “Walking”) that “in Wildness is the preservation of the world.” These texts, which reveal their origins in journals, present highly personal quests for what remains of the wild in China; turning their backs on Beijing, the authors search for validation of a belief, expressed by Thoreau and other environmental writers within a Romantic tradition, that a people in close contact with the wild maintain a strength, earthiness and vitality not found in urban cultures; and that close contact with the wild, especially with wild animals, has a spiritual dimension. These compelling Chinese quests yield different results, inevitably depart from Thoreau’s 19th-century optimism, and make complementary statements on what modern China risks losing as it progressively, and in the name of “progress,” eliminates the wild.

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The population of the villages and market towns in the hilly areas of Hungary have countless ties to the forest. However, forest utilisation was restricted by regulations imposed by the state and the large estate-owners. From the mid-18th century the extent to which serfs and cotters could use the forest and the services they were required to provide were regulated uniformly at the national level. Village people regularly violated the central rules and measures of the estate-owners for protection of the forest, in order to provide themselves with firewood, graze animals and sell timber. The peasant forest communities formed after the liberation of the serfs in 1848 were established on the basis of national laws, but local traditions and local economic interests also influenced their operation. The forest communities themselves regulated the management of the common forest assets and the share of the profits. Their functioning was characterised by internal autonomy and continuous collective control.

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