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Summary  

Chemistry fingerprint of materials helps determine provenance and technological production techniques, and, therefore, is useful way to study interaction between prehistoric people. In this work 38 ceramic fragments from Justino and São José sites, in Brazilian northeast, were analyzed using instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA). The recognition of the compositionally homogeneous group within of the database was performed by means of principal component (PC). The PC scores were calculated on the matrix covariance of the log base 10 transformed concentration values, and grouping was sought in the PC scores using Kernel Density Estimates (KDE). By using KDE from PC scores two chemically different groups were found. Discriminant analysis was performed to assess the groups' validity. Despite of the pottery from Justino and São José sites present same technical profile, different of the Tupiguarani and Aratu traditions, it was obtained that Justino and São José samples are constitute of distinct ceramic pastes. This result can be understood in terms of the cultural influences in the preparation of the ceramic past and that potteries analyzed are originate locally.

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Experiments were performed to study changes caused by irradiation or high hydrostatic pressure pasteurization of liquid egg white by differential scanning calorimetry, spectrofluorimetry, electronic nose measurements and NIR-spectrometry. The non-thermal pasteurization treatments were also assessed in relation to loss of carotenoid content, and lipid- and cholesterol oxidation of liquid egg yolk. Unlike radiation pasteurization, high pressure processing caused protein denaturation in egg white, which manifested in changes of its DSC-thermogram and intrinsic tryptophan fluorescence. Electronic nose testing showed changes of the head-space volatile composition of egg albumen, particularly as a function of radiation treatment. Both treatments caused changes in the NIR-spectrometric “fingerprint” of the liquid egg white. Various chemometric analyses of the results of the latter instrumental methods, particularly statistical techniques developed by the group of one of the co-authors of this article, demonstrated the potential for detection and characterization of the applied non-thermal processing techniques on liquid egg white. Irradiation induced more carotenoid degradation and lipid oxidation in liquid egg yolk than pressure processing.

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Genetic diversity among breeding populations is key in plant breeding programs. This study aimed to determine the extent of genetic diversity among 37 diverse maize genotypes using simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers. The maize genotypes were selected based on their variable resistance to Striga asiatica. Maize genotypes were fingerprinted using 18 polymorphic SSR markers. Marker and population diversity parameters were computed. A total of 191 alleles were detected and the number of effective alleles varied from 2 to 21 per locus with a mean of 11. The polymorphic information content (PIC) of the SSR markers varied from 0.59 to 0.96, with a mean of 0.80. Significant differences were observed among populations, individuals and within individuals. Within and among individual variances accounted for 85% and 13% of the total gene diversity. The genotypes were grouped into three main genetic clusters, which were not influenced by genotype origin. Mean genetic distance (0.43) and low geneflow (0.18) were observed among the populations. High mean genetic identity (0.65) was recorded, indicating potential genetic ‘bottleneck’ among the selected germplasm. The following open pollinated varieties; Border King, Colorado, CIMMYT’s ZM OPVs, Mac Pearl, Shesha, Nel Choice, Natal 8Lines, Nel Choice QPM, Hickory King, Kep Select, Obatanpa and the Striga resistant synthetic variety DSTRYSYN15 were selected from different clusters for breeding.

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An ingredient of ‘Dasamoola’ and ‘Laghupanchamoola’ group of drugs, the source of ‘Brihati’ has been controversial. Although the dried root of Solanum anguivi is considered as the source of the drug ‘Brihati’ according to the Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia of India, closely related and morphologically similar few species like Solanum torvum, Solanum melongena, Solanum incanum, and Solanum insanum are known as its substitutes. In the present study, a high-performance thin-layer chromatography (HPTLC) method was developed and validated for the chemoprofiling and quantitative estimation of glycoalkaloid solamargine from 5 species of the genus Solanum as well as market samples. The developed method was precise, accurate, robust, specific, and linear. The results showed that S. incanum has the highest content of solamargine, followed by S. insanum. Out of the 9 market samples analyzed, solamargine was detected only in 3 samples. Unsupervised pattern recognition techniques, such as principal component analysis and hierarchical cluster analysis, were used to analyze the complex fingerprint patterns and to predict the grouping of samples. The method clearly segregated the field and market samples. Our study is the first attempt to evaluate the drug ‘Brihati’ and the market samples using HPTLC.

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The leaves of Hibiscus sabdariffa L. are one of the sources of food and traditional medicine. A combination of high-performance thin-layer chromatography (HPTLC) bioautographic assay with mass spectrometry (MS) has been performed to screen and identify the antioxidant compounds in the leaves of H. sabdariffa L. The crude extract of H. sabdariffa L. was separated on silica gel 60 HPTLC plates in an automatic developing chamber (ADC2) with toluene–ethyl acetate–formic acid–methanol (6:6:1.6:1, v/v) as the mobile phase. Antioxidant bands were visualized by dipping in 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) reagent. Five antioxidant compounds were identified as neochlorogenic acid (1), chlorogenic acid (2), cryptochlorogenic acid (3), rutin (4), and isoquercitrin (5), which could be the predominant contributors to the antioxidant activity of the leaves of H. sabdariffa L. Furthermore, principal component analysis (PCA) was carried out to discriminate ten accessions of H. sabdariffa L. using an image-processing software. This simple HPTLC fingerprint assisted by PCA can be used as a reliable method for the discrimination of different accessions of H. sabdariffa L.

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Journal of Radioanalytical and Nuclear Chemistry
Authors: Andreza Ribeiro, Ana Figueiredo, Regina Ticianelli, Georges Nammoura-Neto, Natália Silva, Mauricio Kakazu, and Guilherme Zahn

Abstract  

São Paulo is the largest city in Brazil and South America with about 20 million inhabitants in the metropolitan area, more than nine million motor vehicles and intense industrial activity, which are responsible for increasing pollution in the region. Nevertheless, little is known concerning metal and semi-metal content in the soils of this metropolitan region. This type of information could be extremely useful as a fingerprint of environmental pollution. The present study determined the elements As, Ba, Co, Cr, Sb, and Zn concentrations in soils adjacent to avenues of highly dense traffic in São Paulo city to assess their levels and possible sources. The analytical technique employed was Instrumental neutron activation analysis. The results showed, except for Co, concentration levels higher than the reference values for soils of São Paulo, according to the Environmental Protection Agency of the State of São Paulo guidelines. When compared to similar studies in other cities around the world, São Paulo soils presented higher levels, probably due to its high density traffic and industrial activity. The concentrations obtained for As and Cr indicate anthropogenic origin. The high levels of the traffic-related elements Ba, Sb, and Zn in soils nearby high density traffic avenues indicate they may originate from vehicular exhausts.

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Acta Veterinaria Hungarica
Authors: László Makrai, Csaba Nemes, Anna Simon, Éva Ivanics, Zoltán Dudás, László Fodor, and Róbert Glávits

Enterococcus cecorum is the most frequently occurring enterococcal species in the intestine of chickens of over 12 weeks of age, and there are few reports on its isolation from the skeleton of broiler parent chicks. In the present study, observations on vertebral osteomyelitis and spondylolisthesis (‘kinky back syndrome’) showing high incidence in 8 broiler parent flocks in different parts of Hungary are summarised. Clinical signs were seen only in roosters between 5 and 13 weeks of age. Diseased birds were alert and remained sitting on their hocks with their feet slightly raised off the ground. Incidence of the disease among male birds ranged from 8% to 30% depending on flocks. Enlargement and distortion of the body of the 6th vertebra were seen as the main pathological lesions. The cavity of the spinal canal was constricted by the distorted vertebral bodies. Resorption of bone tissue and sequestrum formation, signs of increased osteoclast activity, proliferation of fibrotic tissues, infiltration with heterophils and formation of sclerotic layers were detected in the vertebral bodies. From all 24 samples collected from the vertebral lesions, Enterococcus cecorum was isolated and identified using metabolic fingerprinting as well as 16S rRNA gene sequencing. Demonstration of E. cecorum from the vertebral lesions in all examined broiler breeder roosters showing the same clinical and pathological findings in different flocks suggested the pathogenic role of this microorganism for the first time in Hungary.

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Acta Biologica Hungarica
Authors: O. Törjék, E. Kiss, J. Kiss, M. Kondrak, G. Gyulai, J. Gergácz, and László Heszky

/IPC Welsh, J., McClelland, M. (1990) Fingerprinting genomes using PCR with arbitrary primers. Nucleic Acids Res. 18 , 7213-7218. Fingerprinting genomes using PCR with arbitrary primers Nucleic Acids

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Aerva lanata collected during summer, monsoon and winter were subjected to similar extraction conditions as well as sample application conditions on precoated silica 60F254 TLC plates. The plates were developed in ethyl acetate-toluene (7:3 v/v) in order to study the seasonal variation in HPTLC fingerprints. A similar procedure was also followed for the plant samples collected from three different states of India, in order to study the geographical variation. p-Hydroxybenzoic acid, used as reference standard for comparison with each sample, was observed in samples collected in all three seasons but in different concentrations. The compound was also observed in samples collected from Gujarat and Maharashtra, but was found to be absent in the sample from Kerala. The sample from Kerala showed a different compound at R F 0.74, having a λ max of 280 nm. This compound exhibited a spectrum very different from that of p-hydroxybenzoic acid having a λ max of 252 nm, which separates out at R F 0.73 on the plate. The proposed method was validated according to ICH guidelines in terms of linearity, accuracy and specificity, intra-day and inter-day precision, repeatability of measurement of peak area, repeatability of sample application and specificity. The calibration graph was found to be linear over a range of concentration of 25.0–175.0 ng, with a regression coefficient of 0.9986. Determination of accuracy by standard addition method at three different concentration levels returned a mean recovery value of 97.24 ± 7.36. Intra-day and inter-day precision values were found to be less than 2%. The relative standard deviations (RSDs) of repeatability of sample application and measurement of area were found to be 1.24% and 0.93%, respectively.

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Availability of markers that distinguish commercially important premium Basmati rice varieties from cheaper Basmati or non-Basmati indica rice varieties is of interest to exporters, commercial suppliers and consumers to ensure the varietal purity of Basmati rice supplies. In this study, a fingerprint database of 27 rice varieties including commercially important traditional Basmati (TB), cross-bred (evolved) Basmati and some non-Basmati indica rice varieties has been prepared using 50 microsatellite markers. A total of 271 electromorphs (alleles) were detected at 50 SSR (simple sequence repeat) loci, 92 of which were observed only in 2–10 of the 16 Basmati rice varieties. Notably, 7–10 of the sixteen Basmati rice varieties had the same Basmati specific electromorphs at RM562, RM551 and RM547 loci. Alarge number of unique (22) and null (16) electromorphs were noticed in Basmati rice varieties. A combination of four SSR markers (RM224, RM248, RM547 and RM594) can be used to differentiate all the 27 rice varieties. Specific SSR markers have been identified for the authentication of Premium Basmati rice cultivars such as Taraori Basmati (RM547, RM594 and RM511), Basmati 370 (RM252, RM426 and RM527), Karnal Local (RM248, RM423 and RM488) and Pusa 1121 (RM252, RM400 and RM410), and for the detection of adulterant like Sharbati (RM215, RM423 and RM259). SSR database reported here, shall broaden the list of SSR markers already recommended for varietal identification and detection of adulteration in Basmati rice supplies.

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