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Acta Physiologica Hungarica
Authors: M Slavić, M Slavić, M Slavić, I Appiah, I Appiah, I Appiah, A Nikolić-Kokić, A Nikolić-Kokić, A Nikolić-Kokić, R Radojičić, R Radojičić, R Radojičić, DR Jones, DR Jones, DR Jones, MB Spasić, MB Spasić, MB Spasić, S Milovanović, S Milovanović, S Milovanović, D Blagojević, D Blagojević, and D Blagojević

Possible interactions between nitric oxide donors, reactive oxygen species and anti-oxidative defence enzymes led us to determine the activities of anti-oxidative defence enzymes in isolated uterine smooth muscle before and after spontaneous rhythmic activity ex vivo. For our experiments we used isolated uteri from female Wistar rats. Our results showed an increase in total superoxide dismutase (SOD) and Mn SOD activities in uterine smooth muscle after spontaneous contractions when compared with non-exercised uterine smooth muscle. The activity of catalase (CAT) and glutathione preoxidase (GSH-Px) were also increased. No statistically significant changes in the activities of glutathione reductase (GR) and CuZn SOD were found. It is known that an organism's anti-oxidative defence system (guarding against excessive reactive oxygen species generation) requires balanced increments in its individual anti-oxidative enzyme activities rather than increases in the activity of only some enzymes without increases in others. Thus, we may conclude that some adaptive responses are found in exercised uterine smooth muscle but are not complete. Therefore, our results indicate that changes in anti-oxidative enzyme activities may influence the results of the examination of substances ex vivo.

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Objective

In this study, we investigated the possible effect of Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), a peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ) agonist, on metabolic control and vascular complications of diabetes in streptozotocin/nicotinamide (STZ/NIC) induced type 2 diabetes mellitus.

Material and methods

Type 2 diabetes was induced with 65 mg/kg STZ, 15 minute later 85 mg/kg NIC was given intraperitoneally (i.p.) to rats. Three days after diabetes induction, THC (3 mg/kg/day, i.p.) was given for 7 days to diabetic rats. Body weight and plasma glucose levels of rats were measured in all groups before and at the end of 3 weeks after diabetes induction. Acetylcholine (Ach) and sodium nitroprusside (SNP) potency and maximum relaxant effects were calculated on aortic rings pre-contracted with noradrenaline (NA).

Results

At the end of 3 weeks, blood glucose levels of diabetic group significantly increased in comparison with the control group. Increased plasma glucose levels were significantly decreased by the treatment of THC. Ach induced relaxation was impaired whereas endothelium-independent relaxation to SNP was unaffected on isolated diabetic rat aorta. THC treatment enhanced Ach induced relaxation on diabetic rat aortas.

Discussion

These results suggested that THC improved endothelium-dependent relaxation in STZ/NIC induced diabetic rat aorta and that these effects were mediated at least in part, by control of hyperglycemia and enhanced endothelial nitric oxide bioavailability.

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This study assessed the preventive effects of arginine (ARG) and guanidinoacetic acid (GAA) on the incidence of pulmonary hypertension syndrome (PHS) in broiler chickens. Four isoenergetic and isonitrogenous diets were prepared, including: (i) the control, (ii) the control supplemented with 1 g/kg ARG, (iii) the control supplemented with 1 g/kg GAA, and (iv) the control supplemented with 1.5 g/kg GAA. These diets were fed to broilers (Ross 308) from day 1 to 42 post-hatch. Criteria evaluated in the experiment were growth performance, carcass characteristics, serum and blood variables, lead-II electrocardiogram, and ET-1 and iNOS gene expression in heart and lungs. Mortality from PHS was recorded daily. The results showed that ARG and GAA supplements improved the feed conversion ratio (FCR) compared to the control (P < 0.05). Supplementation of ARG and GAA significantly (P < 0.05) increased serum nitric oxide (NO) concentration. ARG and GAA supplementation significantly reduced the haematocrit value and the heterophil to lymphocyte ratio in the blood. A significant (P < 0.05) decline in S-wave amplitude of the lead-II electrocardiogram, right to total ventricular weight ratio (RV:TV) and ascites mortality was observed by supplementing ARG or 1.5 g/kg GAA. Addition of ARG and GAA supplements did not significantly change ET-1 and iNOS gene expression in the heart and lung relative to the control. In conclusion, GAA supplementation at 1.5 g/kg had a potential to improve growth performance and could prevent PHS.

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11 18 Brignola G, Calignano A, Rosa MD: Modulation of morphine antinociception in the mouse by endogenous nitric oxide. Br. J. Pharmacol. 113, 1372–1376 (1994

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growth regulators, nitric oxide, nitrate, nitrite and light on the germination of dimorphic seeds of Suaeda salsa under saline conditions . J. Plant Res . 118 : 207 – 214 . Lindsay , M

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KA , Taudorf S , James PE , McEneny J , Young IS , Swenson ER , Mairbäurl H , Bärtsch P , Berger MM : High-altitude pulmonary hypertension is associated with a free radical-mediated reduction in pulmonary nitric oxide

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the aging kidney; sexual dimorphism and the nitric oxide system. Exp. Gerontol. 40, 271–278 (2005) Baylis C. Changes in renal hemodynamics and structure in the aging kidney; sexual

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beds Circulation 2003 108 896 901 Belsham DD, Wetsel WC, Mellon PL: NMDA and nitric oxide act through the cGMP signal transduction pathway to repress hypothalamic gonadotropin

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Acta Physiologica Hungarica
Authors: J. Balla, V. Jeney, Zs. Varga, E. Komódi, E. Nagy, and Gy. Balla

H, Wietzerbin J, Kaldy P, Kuhn LC: Biosynthesis of nitric oxide activates iron regulatory factor in macrophages. EMBO J. 12, 3643–3649 (1993) Kuhn L.C. Biosynthesis of nitric

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. Dis. 2011 5 281 295 Ignjatovic T, Stanisavljevic S, Brovkovych V, Skidgel RA, Erdos EG: Kinin B 1 receptors stimulate nitric oxide production in endothelial cells: Signaling pathways activated by

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