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Arcobacter butzleri causes sporadic cases of gastroenteritis, but the underlying immunopathological mechanisms of infection are unknown. We have recently demonstrated that A. butzleri-infected gnotobiotic IL-10−/− mice were clinically unaffected but exhibited intestinal and systemic inflammatory immune responses. For the first time, we here investigated the role of Toll-like receptor (TLR)-4, the main receptor for lipopolysaccharide and lipooligosaccharide of Gram-negative bacteria, in murine arcobacteriosis. Gnotobiotic TLR-4/IL-10-double deficient (TLR-4−/− IL-10−/−) and IL-10−/− control mice generated by broad-spectrum antibiotics were perorally infected with A. butzleri. Until day 16 postinfection, mice of either genotype were stably colonized with the pathogen, but fecal bacterial loads were approximately 0.5–2.0 log lower in TLR-4−/− IL-10−/− as compared to IL-10−/− mice. A. butzleri-infected TLR-4−/− IL-10−/− mice displayed less pronounced colonic apoptosis accompanied by lower numbers of macrophages and monocytes, T lymphocytes, regulatory T-cells, and B lymphocytes within the colonic mucosa and lamina propria as compared to IL-10−/− mice. Furthermore, colonic concentrations of nitric oxide, TNF, IL-6, MCP-1, and, remarkably, IFN and IL-12p70 serum levels were lower in A. butzleri-infected TLR-4−/− IL-10−/− versus IL-10−/− mice. In conclusion, TLR-4 is involved in mediating murine A. butzleri infection. Further studies are needed to investigate the molecular mechanisms underlying Arcobacter—host interactions in more detail.

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Acta Physiologica Hungarica
Authors: M Ninković, M Ninković, M Ninković, Z Maličević, Z Maličević, Z Maličević, A Jelenković, A Jelenković, A Jelenković, DM Jovanović, DM Jovanović, DM Jovanović, M Đukić, M Đukić, M Đukić, I Vasiljević, I Vasiljević, and I Vasiljević

As a part of blood-brain barrier, brain capillaries participate in pathophysiological events during systemic inflammation. We investigated the effects of 7-nitroindazole (7-NI), selective neuronal nitric oxide synthase (NOS) inhibitor, to oxidative status (OS) of brain capillaries. Adult Wistar rats were randomized at groups: control group (CG) (sham operated), sepsis group (GS) (cecal ligation and perforation with inoculation of Escherichia coli (ATCC 25922), 7-NI group (G7-NI), (30 mg/kg b/w i. p.) and 7-NI + sepsis group (G7-NIS), (7-NI was applied 30 minutes before operation). Lipid peroxidation index (LPI), nitrite concentration, superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity and superoxide anion (O2 · -) content were determined 3, 6, 24 and 48 hour in each group. Cerebral capillaries were separated from non-vascular brain tissue using sucrose gradient. Compared to controls, LPI, nitrite and O2 · - increased at SG. In the G7-NIS, LPI reached control values at the 24 th and 48 th hour, while nitrite were decreased at the 3 rd and 24 th hour, compared to controls. In the same group, O2 · - decreased at the 3 rd, 6 th and 24 th hour, although SOD showed variable activity. The systematic nNOS inhibition with 7-NI forces OS on early terms of sepsis, but lately it contributes to the normalization of OS in cerebral capillaries.

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Acta Physiologica Hungarica
Authors: M Slavić, M Slavić, M Slavić, I Appiah, I Appiah, I Appiah, A Nikolić-Kokić, A Nikolić-Kokić, A Nikolić-Kokić, R Radojičić, R Radojičić, R Radojičić, DR Jones, DR Jones, DR Jones, MB Spasić, MB Spasić, MB Spasić, S Milovanović, S Milovanović, S Milovanović, D Blagojević, D Blagojević, and D Blagojević

Possible interactions between nitric oxide donors, reactive oxygen species and anti-oxidative defence enzymes led us to determine the activities of anti-oxidative defence enzymes in isolated uterine smooth muscle before and after spontaneous rhythmic activity ex vivo. For our experiments we used isolated uteri from female Wistar rats. Our results showed an increase in total superoxide dismutase (SOD) and Mn SOD activities in uterine smooth muscle after spontaneous contractions when compared with non-exercised uterine smooth muscle. The activity of catalase (CAT) and glutathione preoxidase (GSH-Px) were also increased. No statistically significant changes in the activities of glutathione reductase (GR) and CuZn SOD were found. It is known that an organism's anti-oxidative defence system (guarding against excessive reactive oxygen species generation) requires balanced increments in its individual anti-oxidative enzyme activities rather than increases in the activity of only some enzymes without increases in others. Thus, we may conclude that some adaptive responses are found in exercised uterine smooth muscle but are not complete. Therefore, our results indicate that changes in anti-oxidative enzyme activities may influence the results of the examination of substances ex vivo.

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11 18 Brignola G, Calignano A, Rosa MD: Modulation of morphine antinociception in the mouse by endogenous nitric oxide. Br. J. Pharmacol. 113, 1372–1376 (1994

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growth regulators, nitric oxide, nitrate, nitrite and light on the germination of dimorphic seeds of Suaeda salsa under saline conditions . J. Plant Res . 118 : 207 – 214 . Lindsay , M

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KA , Taudorf S , James PE , McEneny J , Young IS , Swenson ER , Mairbäurl H , Bärtsch P , Berger MM : High-altitude pulmonary hypertension is associated with a free radical-mediated reduction in pulmonary nitric oxide

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beds Circulation 2003 108 896 901 Belsham DD, Wetsel WC, Mellon PL: NMDA and nitric oxide act through the cGMP signal transduction pathway to repress hypothalamic gonadotropin

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the aging kidney; sexual dimorphism and the nitric oxide system. Exp. Gerontol. 40, 271–278 (2005) Baylis C. Changes in renal hemodynamics and structure in the aging kidney; sexual

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Acta Physiologica Hungarica
Authors: J. Balla, V. Jeney, Zs. Varga, E. Komódi, E. Nagy, and Gy. Balla

H, Wietzerbin J, Kaldy P, Kuhn LC: Biosynthesis of nitric oxide activates iron regulatory factor in macrophages. EMBO J. 12, 3643–3649 (1993) Kuhn L.C. Biosynthesis of nitric

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Orvosi Hetilap
Authors: Viktor Hegedüs, Domokos Gerő, Zoltán Mihály, Attila Szijártó, Tivadar Zelles, and Éva Sárdi

A redox-homeosztázis változása a citokinek és szabad gyökök változásával jár és számos intracelluláris jelátviteli utat befolyásolhat különböző májbetegségekben. A liofilizált cékla+répa készítmény (GPS Powder Kft. 1361/004/ 2003BFÁÉÉÁ) bioaktív komponensei, mint például a betain, betaninok, betaxantinok, flavonoidok, polifenolok, glutamin, β-karotin, vitaminok és folsav megváltoztathatják a különböző sejtfolyamatokat. Célok: A szerzők célul tűzték ki a cékla+répa liofilizált készítmény bioaktív hatóanyagai védőhatásának vizsgálatát experimentális zsírmájban. Módszer: Hím Wistar patkányokat etettek standard és zsírdús táppal (a standard tápot kiegészítették 2% koleszterinnel, 0,5% kólsavval és 20% napraforgóolajjal) és a kezelt csoportoknak az etetéssel együtt 0,1 vagy 1 g/ttkg/nap természetes készítményt adagoltak. Az indukálható ciklooxigenáz-2 enzim, az indukált nitrogén-monoxid-szintetáz és a tumornekrózis-faktor-α mRNS-szinteket molekuláris-biológiai módszerekkel határozták meg. A szabad gyököket, a H-donor-aktivitást, a redukálóképességet és a szabad SH-csoport-koncentrációt luminometriás vagy spektrofotometriás eljárással mérték. A mobilizálható metilcsoportokat túlnyomásos folyadék-kromatográfiával tanulmányozták. Eredmények: A nagyobb dózisú természetes készítmény jobban csökkentette az indukált szabadgyök-reakciókat, az indukálható ciklooxigenáz-2 enzim, az indukált nitrogén-monoxid-szintetáz és tumornekrózis-faktor-α mRNS-szintjeit, mind egészséges májszövetben, mind zsírmájban. Bár a kezelés nem gyakorolt szignifikáns változásokat az összes globális antioxidáns-paraméterre, zsírmájban a kezelés után megnövekedett mobilizálható metilcsoport-koncentrációkat észleltek és kedvező tendenciát találtak a máj redox-homeosztázisában is. Következtetések: A vártnak megfelelően a mérsékelt dózisú cékla+répa liofilizátum „funkcionális élelmiszernek” bizonyult az élelmi zsír által indukált experimentális zsírmájban. Lehetséges, hogy e kedvező hatás a klinikumban is hasznosulást nyerhet. Orv. Hetil., 2011, 152, 1035–1042.

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