Authors:M Slavić, M Slavić, M Slavić, I Appiah, I Appiah, I Appiah, A Nikolić-Kokić, A Nikolić-Kokić, A Nikolić-Kokić, R Radojičić, R Radojičić, R Radojičić, DR Jones, DR Jones, DR Jones, MB Spasić, MB Spasić, MB Spasić, S Milovanović, S Milovanović, S Milovanović, D Blagojević, D Blagojević, and D Blagojević
interactions between nitric oxide donors, reactive oxygen species and
anti-oxidative defence enzymes led us to determine the activities of
anti-oxidative defence enzymes in isolated uterine smooth muscle before and
after spontaneous rhythmic activity ex vivo. For our experiments we
used isolated uteri from female Wistar rats. Our results showed an increase
in total superoxide dismutase (SOD) and Mn SOD activities in uterine smooth
muscle after spontaneous contractions when compared with non-exercised
uterine smooth muscle. The activity of catalase (CAT) and glutathione
preoxidase (GSH-Px) were also increased. No statistically significant changes
in the activities of glutathione reductase (GR) and CuZn SOD were found. It
is known that an organism's anti-oxidative defence system (guarding against
excessive reactive oxygen species generation) requires balanced increments in
its individual anti-oxidative enzyme activities rather than increases in the
activity of only some enzymes without increases in others. Thus, we may
conclude that some adaptive responses are found in exercised uterine smooth
muscle but are not complete. Therefore, our results indicate that changes in
anti-oxidative enzyme activities may influence the results of the examination
of substances ex vivo.
Authors:A. Altınok, Z.M. Coşkun, K. Karaoğlu, S. Bolkent, A.G. Akkan, and S. Özyazgan
In this study, we investigated the possible effect of Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), a peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ) agonist, on metabolic control and vascular complications of diabetes in streptozotocin/nicotinamide (STZ/NIC) induced type 2 diabetes mellitus.
Material and methods
Type 2 diabetes was induced with 65 mg/kg STZ, 15 minute later 85 mg/kg NIC was given intraperitoneally (i.p.) to rats. Three days after diabetes induction, THC (3 mg/kg/day, i.p.) was given for 7 days to diabetic rats. Body weight and plasma glucose levels of rats were measured in all groups before and at the end of 3 weeks after diabetes induction. Acetylcholine (Ach) and sodium nitroprusside (SNP) potency and maximum relaxant effects were calculated on aortic rings pre-contracted with noradrenaline (NA).
At the end of 3 weeks, blood glucose levels of diabetic group significantly increased in comparison with the control group. Increased plasma glucose levels were significantly decreased by the treatment of THC. Ach induced relaxation was impaired whereas endothelium-independent relaxation to SNP was unaffected on isolated diabetic rat aorta. THC treatment enhanced Ach induced relaxation on diabetic rat aortas.
These results suggested that THC improved endothelium-dependent relaxation in STZ/NIC induced diabetic rat aorta and that these effects were mediated at least in part, by control of hyperglycemia and enhanced endothelial nitric oxide bioavailability.
Authors:Behnam Ahmadipour, Mohammadreza Sharifi, and Fariborz Khajali
This study assessed the preventive effects of arginine (ARG) and guanidinoacetic acid (GAA) on the incidence of pulmonary hypertension syndrome (PHS) in broiler chickens. Four isoenergetic and isonitrogenous diets were prepared, including: (i) the control, (ii) the control supplemented with 1 g/kg ARG, (iii) the control supplemented with 1 g/kg GAA, and (iv) the control supplemented with 1.5 g/kg GAA. These diets were fed to broilers (Ross 308) from day 1 to 42 post-hatch. Criteria evaluated in the experiment were growth performance, carcass characteristics, serum and blood variables, lead-II electrocardiogram, and ET-1 and iNOS gene expression in heart and lungs. Mortality from PHS was recorded daily. The results showed that ARG and GAA supplements improved the feed conversion ratio (FCR) compared to the control (P < 0.05). Supplementation of ARG and GAA significantly (P < 0.05) increased serum nitric oxide (NO) concentration. ARG and GAA supplementation significantly reduced the haematocrit value and the heterophil to lymphocyte ratio in the blood. A significant (P < 0.05) decline in S-wave amplitude of the lead-II electrocardiogram, right to total ventricular weight ratio (RV:TV) and ascites mortality was observed by supplementing ARG or 1.5 g/kg GAA. Addition of ARG and GAA supplements did not significantly change ET-1 and iNOS gene expression in the heart and lung relative to the control. In conclusion, GAA supplementation at 1.5 g/kg had a potential to improve growth performance and could prevent PHS.
Authors:SO Bashir, H Suekit, AO Elkarib, MA Dafaalla, MB Abd Elrouf, MD Morsy, and M Eskandar
KA , Taudorf S , James PE , McEneny J , Young IS , Swenson ER , Mairbäurl H , Bärtsch P , Berger MM : High-altitude pulmonary hypertension is associated with a free radical-mediated reduction in pulmonary nitricoxide