In a three-year model experiment the water deficiency resistance and the quality of yield were investigated in the case of soybean and bean cultivars of determined growth. The plants were grown under irrigated and non-irrigated conditions, modelling the conditions of drought. The soybean cultivars used a considerably higher amount of water before reaching the green pod maturity stage than the bean cultivars. Their water use under water stress decreased considerably (46%), in contrast with beans, where this decrease was only 18–21%. This correlates with the vegetation period of the varieties, their water use in certain vegetation periods and the development of their roots. The roots of beans determine the size of the yield and that of water circulation but only affects the formation of pods in a few varieties. The roots of soybean cultivars affect the size of yield and the quality of seeds as well. This is especially important in organic matter circulation under water-deficient conditions. If the roots are small, the dry matter and oil contents increase more intensively in the seed, but this has no effect on the protein content of the seeds. The small root mass and small specific leaf area (SLA) of the early soybean cultivar McCall and the Hungold variety of beans decreased yield losses under water deficiency conditions, in contrast with the mid-late maturing soybean variety Evans, where this was not experienced.
Authors:M. F. El-Kramany, A. A. Bahr, and A. M. Gomaa
A pot trial was carried out in the greenhouse of the National Research Centre during the summer season of 1999 to investigate the combined impact of Bradyrhizobium sp. (vigna) and Azotobacter vinelandii in the presence of various doses of chemical fertilizers, i.e. 25%, 50% and 100% of the recommended dose of NPK, on nodulation, growth parameters, seed yield and its components, and seed contents of protein, phosphorus and potassium of a local (Kawmy-1) and three exotic (VC-4, VC-9 and King) varieties of mungbean. The results indicated that there were no significant differences between the different varieties for nodule number per plant, while significant variations were obtained between both varieties and biofertilization treatments. The plants of the Kawmy-1 variety gave the shortest period of growth, the highest number of pods per plant and the highest values of harvest index and seed protein content. The King variety had the longest period of growth and the highest values for number of branches, seed yield, biological yield, seed index and seed phosphorus content. The inclusion of Azotobacter vinelandii significantly augmented various tested parameters, with the exception of seed yield, biological yield and potassium content, in comparison with Bradyrhizobium. Insignificant differences were found owing to the interaction between varieties, various levels of mineral fertilizers and types of biofertilizers with the exception of harvest index and seed phosphorus content.
Authors:M. Rakszegi, G. Balázs, F. Békés, A. Harasztos, A. Kovács, L. Láng, Z. Bedő, and S. Tömösközi
Damaged starch, protein and arabinoxylan (AX) content and composition have been related to water absorption (WA) in a large set of samples. We tested 20 modern bread wheat cultivars bred in Hungary, 20 old Hungarian landraces, and 17 cultivars with special biochemical/functional characteristics from all around the world, this last set for international comparison. Grain was field grown in the 2011 and 2012 harvest seasons. Alinear mathematical model has been developed to estimate WA from protein content, starch damage, AX content and the relative amount of soluble proteins with strong correlation (r2 = 0.65) between measured and estimated data. The introduction of a new parameter, related to the cultivar dependent quantitative composition of soluble proteins and determined by lab-on-a-chip (LOC) analysis, largely improved the predictability of WA. Based on the large variation among the level of AX and certain soluble protein components in wheat flour and their significant contribution toWA determination, it was concluded, that these properties could be appropriate target traits to alter them during wheat breeding programs to improve the WA of wheat flour.
Authors:M. Studnicki, M. Wijata, G. Sobczyński, S. Samborski, and J. Rozbicki
Eleven spring wheat cultivars were compared in terms of the stability of their grain yield and grain quality. The cultivars’ stability was evaluated separately at two different crop management levels – moderate-input management and high-input management. Three stability models were used for the two crop management levels based on a linear mixed model framework with restricted maximum likelihood. The Shukla model was the most appropriate for the evaluation of stability of tested spring wheat cultivars. The thousand-grain weight, starch content, Zeleny sedimentation value and test weight were characterized, and the stability ranking cultivars at moderate-input management level was mostly consistent with the rank of cultivars 24 for high-input management level. For grain yield, grain protein content and wet gluten content, the stability rankings were not consistent. Cultivars ‘Monsun’ and ‘Parabola’ are the most stable cultivars for grain yield in moderate-input management and high-input management, respectively. Cultivar ‘Hewilla’ was the stable cultivar for all quality traits at moderate-input management. Cultivar ‘Arabella’ was the most stable cultivar at high-input management level.
Authors:F. Vučajnk, S. Trdan, G. Leskošek, I.J. Košir, A. Sreš, D. Kocjan Ačko, and M. Vidrih
In 2014 and 2015, we studied the effect of fungicide spraying with 11 different nozzles on the quality and quantity of head and leaf fungicide deposit, the percentage of Fusarium head blight (FHB) incidence, FHB index, the DON content, yield and grain quality parameters. The best quality and quantity of fungicide deposit on the front and rear head sides was achieved with the TeeJet Turbo FloodJet TF VP2 nozzle (FLOOD) and the Albuz AVI-TWIN 110-03 nozzle (AVI). In comparison with the majority of treatments, the FHB incidence and the FHB index was the highest on the unsprayed control. The FHB index was higher using the Lechler IDK 120-03 nozzle (IDK) than with the other nozzle types. In all the treatments, the DON content in the grain was less than 50 μg/kg. At this very low level of infection this is not surprising. The grain yield was the smallest on the unsprayed control. Better fungicide coverage of wheat heads with the FLOOD and AVI nozzles did not result in a statistically higher yield or better grain quality parameters. Negative correlations were confirmed between yield and variables as DON content, FHB incidence and FHB index and also between falling number and variables as fungicide coverage, FHB incidence and FHB index. Positive correlations were determined between DON content and FHB incidence, between hectolitre weight and variables as spray deposit and coverage and between protein content and variables as spray deposit and coverage.
Authors:M. Safar-Noori, D.V.M. Assaha, and H. Saneoka
Drought stress severely reduces wheat productivity and affects grain quality. In this study the effects of combined application of salicylic acid (SA) and potassium (K) on yield and grain quality of wheat under drought stress condition was investigated. Winter wheat cultivar Minaminokaori was grown in pots in a greenhouse, and subjected to 3 levels of K (50, 100 and 200 kg ha–1) fertilizer applications. The plants were foliar sprayed with SA (0.7 mM) at heading stage, and then imposed to the drought stress until grain maturity. Drought stress decreased grain yield by 41.1%, starch content by 10.2% and water-soluble pentosan content by 3.5% in comparison to well-irrigated control. However, grain crude protein content, total pentosan content and phytate phosphorus content were increased by 33.0%, 17.9%, and 13.4% respectively. Under the same drought condition, the application of combined SA and high K levels has increased grain yield (13.3%), starch (12.2%) and water-soluble pentosan content (20.3%) compared to SA-untreated with low level of K fertilizer. In addition, SA application decreased the percentage of phytate phosphorus to total phosphorus under drought stress. These results suggested that combined treatment of SA foliar application and a higher doses of K fertilizer can partially improve wheat productivity, grain nutritional quality, particularly water-soluble pentosan that influences the bread-making quality, without increasing the anti-nutrient component phytate under drought stress condition.
Sudan grass and pearl millet are major warm season dryland crops, primarily grown for grain production and used as a major source of dietary energy. Both crops are highly water use efficient and belong to the C
group of species with high photosynthetic efficiency and dry matter accumulation rates. Both sudan grass and pearl millet have good forage quality, with an adequate crude protein content; that of pearl millet (8.7%) is higher than that of sorghum (6.0%). Therefore, the present investigation was conducted in the Western Delta Region at El-Naubaria, 40 km south of Alexandria, over two successive seasons to evaluate the forage yield and quality of sudan grass and pearl millet. Field experiments were established on calcareous soils, with five fertilization treatments. The results indicate that pearl millet surpassed sudan grass in fresh (6.56 t/ha) and dry yield (2.91 t/ha), which was 8.89% and 5.26% more, respectively, than for sudan grass. As regards the forage quality, pearl millet had good digestibility and was lower in fibre than sudan grass.
Laetiporus sulphureus (chicken of the woods) is a wood decaying mushroom with positive medicinal and biological effects. The aim of this study was to determine its chemical composition including the main organic components (protein, fat, fibre, and ash contents, different protein fractions, the free amino acid level, soluble oligo- and polysaccharides, phenolics), the in vitro digestibility, the free radical scavenging activity, and twenty mineral elements.Our data demonstrate the characteristic in general valuable chemical composition of the mushroom Laetiporus sulphureus. Protein content in fruiting bodies is not too high (10.6% d.m.), but the biological value (in vitro digestibility, rate of protein fractions, free amino acid content, etc.) is good (including fat and energy levels). Occurrence of “bioactive” components (phenolics, soluble oligo- and polysaccharides) and the measured free radical scavenging activity are similar to these parameters in Pleurotus (oyster) species. Potassium and phosphorus contents are remarkable (28 940 mg kg−1 d.m. and 4890 mg kg−1 d.m., respectively); levels of some poisonous microelements (As, Cd, Cr) are very low or undetectable. Chicken of the woods (Laetiporus sulphureus) is not only a suitable species for human consumption, but can be a new cultivable mushroom of valuable bioactive substances.
The application of gibberellic acid (GA3), ascorbic acid (ASA) and olive mill wastewater (OMW) as spray was used as possible techniques for storage life prolongation and quality maintenance of bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) fruits at 20 and 5 °C. Control and OMW-treated beans displayed greater rates of O2 depletion and CO2 production. GA3-sprayed beans respired slower and revealed the lowest weight losses. Changes in glucose and fructose contents were less inhibited, while higher decrease under OMW treatment was recorded at both temperatures; total protein content profile did not change upon treatments. GA3 and ASA seem to be particularly effective in inhibiting enzymatic browning of beans. GA3 and ASA reduced the metabolic activity of moulds, while inducing the growth of yeasts as compared to the control. OMW-treated beans showed enhanced development of moulds and yeasts. The beneficial effect of GA3 on bean shelf-life prolongation was shown; while the protective effect of ASA was only partial.
Authors:T. Molnár, B. Kucska, A. Szabó, J. Biró, M. Bercsényi, and Cs. Hancz
A feeding experiment was conducted on northern pike, Esox lucius L. (123.6±33.3 g initial body weight) applying graded dietary fish oil supplementation resulting three dietary fat levels (without supplementation: 6.2% fat and 11.7, 17.4% fat levels with supplementations) in a recirculation system. Feed consumption, feed efficiency and protein utilization of pike was not affected by the treatment. Whole body lipid content analysis showed that the composition of pike was significantly affected by the increasing level of fish oil supplementation, although no relationship was detected between the dietary and the fillet lipid content, as well as the protein content of fish bodies. High docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, C22:6n-3) proportions were found in the muscle lipids (groups fed fish oil supplementation), as compared to the dietary fatty acid compositions suggesting that with dietary fish oil supplementation the dietary precursors (mainly EPA) enable pike to convert long chain highly unsaturated fatty acids, especially DHA; resulting high DHA: EPA ratios in the fillet.