Authors:K. Albert, A. Koris, I. Gáspár, G. Rácz, and Gy. Vatai
Membrane emulsification (ME) is a relatively new technique for the highly controlled production of particulates, which helps to obtain a narrower distribution compared to other emulsification techniques such as homogenizers or ultrasound. Benefits of membrane emulsification for food applications include the low shear properties and the uniform size distribution. In this process, the dispersed phase (oil) is pressed through the pores of a microporous membrane directly into the continuous phase (water) flowing tangentially to the membrane surface. The purpose of the emulsification experimentations was to find and model operating conditions of the operation. In laboratory experiments from conventional, commercial grade sunflower oil (dispersed phase) and from distilled water (solid phase), emulsions were prepared. The ceramic tube membrane with nominal pore size of 1.4 μm was used in the experiments (ZrO2). In order to increase the shear-stress near the membrane wall (influence the characteristics of the flow regime of the continuous phase), a kind of self-fabricated helical-shaped-ribbon reducer was installed inside the tube membrane.
Authors:J. Belovai, R. Romvári, H. Fébel, M. Mézes, D. Bánáti, and A. Szabó
Replacement of animal fat with plant oils is a very popular research field, due to the increasing prevalence of cardiovascular diseases in association with saturated fatty acid consumption. The aim of this study was to reduce amount of pig backfat in a meat product (Párizsi) and to partially replace it with soybean- (SBL) or sunflower lecithin (SFL). Between the samples difference was realized in fatty acid (FA) profile, mostly in total n6 FA content. The replacement also altered the colour compared to the control. The oxidative stability (MDA) analysis showed that SBL was more prone towards preparation technology (10 nmol MDA/g) than the Sfl(9 nmol MDA/g). The lecithin appeared as foreign taste based on the sensory test. The aromatic difference, as assessed with electronic nose, was clearly detectable between Sfland SBL. The increasing supplementation levels were also properly distinguished with discriminant analysis within the SBL and Sflseries. Summarized, Sflwas found to be a better antioxidant, but SBL improved the FA profile into a more favourable state. The lecithin-replacement made unlikeness in the taste compared to the control.
Observations of the flight of the western corn rootworm (WCR) were made necessary by its appearance and settling in 2004 and by the possibilities of control. Therefore studies were carried out using Pherocon AM traps in a 111,1 ha maize stand sown after sunflower. The 6 traps were placed at the edge and in the inside of the field, respectively. The influence of the meteorological elements on flight was determined by comparing the temperature and precipitation to the flight of WCR adults.The results obtained with the traps unambiguously pointed to the late summer, one-peak adult flight of the WCR. The rather late mass flight can be attributed to the influence of climatic factors. Toward the end of the vegetation cycle of maize, beside the appearance in high individual numbers (an average of 141 and 142 adults trapped a week) the proportion of gravid females (25–28% on 29 July; 38–42% on 5 August) was found to increase in the area, which forecasts a mass appearance of the next year’s generation. The traps at the edge of the field caught a higher number of adults than those in the inside [averages of the trapping controls for traps at the edge: 3,00 (trap 1.); 2,67 (trap 2.); 3,44 (trap 3.); 2,78 (trap 4), while for the inner traps: equally 4,56 (trap 5.,6.)] Toward the end of flight the difference decreased.
Authors:Neelam Upadhyay, Anil Kumar, Ankit Goyal, and Darshan Lal
Reversed-phase thin-layer chromatography (RP-TLC) is a sensitive, reliable, and reproducible technique, which can analyze a number of components simultaneously. This technique was exploited in the present study to identify the adulteration of vegetable oils (groundnut, soybean, and sunflower oil) in ghee, using the fact that β-sitosterol, an unsaponifiable matter, is present in vegetable oils, while absent in pure ghee. For this, RP-TLC of reference standards, unsaponifiable matter of pure ghee (cow and buffalo), pure vegetable oils, and the ghee adulterated with these vegetable oils (≥1%) was carried out on plates with different stationary phases, viz., RP-18, RP-8, and RP-2 plates using solvent system comprising of petroleum ether, acetonitrile, and methanol. The results revealed that adulteration of vegetable oils in ghee can easily be detected at a level of as low as 1 percent on RP-18 and RP-8 plates, while RP-2 plate did not offer any help in detection of adulteration. Thus, with the help of RP-TLC, a robust technique, the purity of ghee can be screened with respect to the presence of vegetable oils.
Authors:K. Szentmihályi, A. Blázovics, I. Kocsis, Edit Fehér, B. Lakatos, and Péter Vinkler
The metabolic alteration of fatty liver causes significant changes in the composition of bile fluid secreted by epithelial liver cells. These processes include both organic molecular and inorganic ion content changes in bile juice as well. In this work ion concentration differences of bile fluid in experimental hyperlipidemic rats compared to normal ones were monitored. Fatty liver in young male Wistar albino rats was induced by 2% cholesterol, 20% sunflower oil and 0.5% cholic acid added to the normal food and 3% alcoholic water was administered to rats for 9 days. The development of hyperlipidemy was detected by measuring serum parameters and fatty liver was proved by morphological investigations. The ion concentrations of bile fluid samples were determined by ICP-OES (inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry). The bile fluid samples were digested with a mixture of HNO3 and H2 O2 . The results show that the concentration of calcium and phosphorus in bile juice increased significantly in hyperlipidemic rats compared to the control. Significant concentration changes have also been detected for chromium and manganese. The changes in metal ion metabolism also point to the damage of liver cells owing to metal complex evacuation.
Authors:A. Tomaz, M. Patanita, I. Guerreiro, L. Boteta, and J.F. Palma
In intensive irrigated farming systems, the way to improve productive efficiency depends on the proper management of resources. With the implementation of the Alqueva global irrigation system in the southern Portugal region of Alentejo, agricultural intensification is a reality that imposes to farmers the challenge of producing more and more efficiently, ensuring the farming systems sustainability. This work resulted from an on-farm demonstration project carried out in two locations in the Alqueva region. Water use and water productivity were studied during 2012/2013 and 2013/2014, in three double cropping systems: a maize monoculture (MM) and two rotations, barley + maize-barley (BM-B) and sunflower-barley + maize (S-BM). Maize yields were influenced by the length of the crop cycle. In the rotation BM-B, with a predominance of autumn-winter crops, water requirements were lower and the total volume of irrigation applied was approximately half of the monoculture (5930 m3/ha and 13,230 m3/ha, respectively). When the potential crop yield was reached, maize had the higher water productivity (the highest value achieved was of 2.7 kg/m3). Overall, as a result of the lower yields achieved, the water productivity values indicate a less balanced performance of the S-BM rotation.
Authors:Erika Tóth, Tamás Tauber, Balázs Wirth, Marcell Nikolausz, Márton Palatinszky, Peter Schumann, and Károly Márialigeti
The effect of several easily degradable substrates, such as protein, starch and sunflower oil was investigated on the bacterial community of a laboratory-scale biogas model system. Besides measuring gas yield, Denaturing Gradient Gel Electrophoresis (DGGE), Phospholipids Fatty Acid Analysis (PLFA) for Bacteria and T-RFLP analysis of the mcrA gene for Archaea were used. The community of the examined biogas reactors adapted to the new substrates through a robust physiological reaction followed by moderate community abundance shifts. Gas yield data clearly demonstrated the physiological adaptation to substrate shifts. Statistical analysis of DNA and chemotaxonomic biomarkers revealed community abundance changes. Sequences gained from DGGE bands showed the dominance of the phyla Bacteroidetes and the presence of Firmicutes (Clostridia) and Thermotogae. This was supported by the detection of large amounts of branched 15-carbon non-hydroxy fatty acids in PLFA profiles, as common PLFA markers of the Bacteroidetes group. Minor abundance ratios changes were observed in the case of Archaea in accordance with changes of the fed substrates.
Authors:Simona Clichici, C. Catoi, T. Mocan, A. Filip, C. Login, A. Nagy, D. Daicoviciu, N. Decea, C. Gherman, R. Moldovan, and Adriana Muresan
Oxidative stress is related to the liver fibrosis, anticipating the hepatic stellate cells’ (HSC) activation. Our aim was to correlate oxidative stress markers with the histological liver alterations in order to identify predictive, noninvasive parameters of fibrosis progression in the evolution of toxic hepatitis.CCl4 in sunflower oil was administered to rats intragastrically, twice a week. After 2, 3, 4 and 8 weeks of treatment, plasma levels of malondialdehyde (MDA), protein carbonyls (PC), hydrogen donor capacity (HD), sulfhydryl groups (SH), and glutathione (GSH) were measured and histological examination of the liver slides was performed. Dynamics of histological disorders was assessed by The Knodell score. Significant elevation of inflammation grade was obtained after the second week of the experiment only (p=0.001), while fibrosis started to become significant (p=0.001) after 1 month of CCl4 administration. Between plasma MDA and liver fibrosis development a good correlation was obtained (r=0.877, p=0.05). Correlation between PC dynamics and liver alterations was marginally significant for inflammation grade (r=0.756, p=0.138). HD evolution revealed a marginally inverse correlation with inflammation grade (r=−0.794, p=0.108). No correlations could be established for other parameters with either inflammation grade or fibrosis stage.Our study shows that MDA elevation offers the best prediction potential for fibrosis, while marginal prediction fiability could be attributed to high levels of plasma PC and low levels of HD.