On the basis of survey, conducted within the framework of the UNESCO International Comparative Study on the Organization of Research groups, the role and position of women in scientific activity is compared. Data on a total of (6000 individuals) from Argentina, India, Egypt, Korea, Poland and USSR show that women scientists' participation is highest in Poland, and lower in India, Korea and Argentina. Everywhere women scientists are more often doing the routine aspects of the research process and more isolated from external contacts with men. Women have lower scientific productivity than male scientists which can be interpreted as a consequence of their lower status in the organization.
Through theoretical analysis and empirical demonstration, this paper attempts to model the behavior of science and technology
by investigating the self-propagating behavior of their diffusion for South Korea, Malaysia and Japan. The dynamics of the
self-propagating behavior were examined using the logistic growth function within a dynamic carrying capacity, while allowing
for different effectiveness of potential influence of science and technology producers on potential adopters. Evidence suggests
that the self-propagating growth function is particularly relevant for countries with advanced science and technology, like
Japan. While self-propagating growth was also found for South Korea, the diffusion process remained fairly static for Malaysia.
The Korean government reported that in 2005, 4395 tons/day of sewage sludge were generated from sewage disposal facilities
in Korea and only 11.03% of it was reused. In addition, as a direct landfill of sewage sludge was forbidden from June 2003,
research for a relevant disposal technique has been increasing. In this study, the aims were to analyze the collected sewage
sludge samples and to evaluate the possibility for their reuse by a comparison of the elemental contents from a sewage sludge
and a cover soil. Sludge samples were collected from a sewage disposal plant in Daejeon city and the cover soil was produced
by a dilution of a sewage sludge with quicklime. Instrumental neutron activation analysis was employed to determine the elemental
contents in the samples. Twenty seven elements were analyzed and their concentrations were compared.
Authors:K. Sakamoto, N. Aota, Y. Miyamoto, S. Kosanda, Y. Oura, T. Okui, M. Igarashi, and T. Nakanishi
Fifteen GSJ (Geological Survey of Japan) and six KIER (Korean Institute of Energy and Resources; now Korean Institute of Geology, Mining and Materials, KIGAM) igneous rock series and nine GSJ sedimentary rock series reference samples were analysed for 21–29 elements by neutron and/or photon activation analysis (NAA and PAA); 14 MeV-NAA for Si and Al, fission track method for U, radiochemical and instrumental NAA for rare earth elements, with reactor neutrons for the latter two. Instrumental neutron and photon AA for the remaining elements were performed with reactor neutrons and bremsstrahlung of end-point energy of 30 MeV, respectively. The reactor irradiations were performed at core sites and also a thermal column of the Kyoto University Research Reactor. All of the radioassays were performed by -ray spectrometry with HPGe-detectors. The present results from the different types of irradiation are compared and discussed in terms of elemental abundances and rock types.
Authors:C. Kim, C. Kim, B. Chang, S. Choi, C. Chung, G. Hong, K. Hirose, and H. Pettersson
239+240Pu concentrations and 240Pu/239Pu atom ratios in bottom sediments of the Yellow Sea, Korea Strait, East Sea (Sea of Japan), Sea of Okhotsk, and Northwest Pacific Ocean were determined. In coastal sediments near the Korean Peninsula, 239+240Pu concentrations varied from 0.02 to 1.72 Bq.kg-1, and their 240Pu/239Pu atom ratios from 0.15 to 0.24, with an average of 0.20±0.03. 240Pu/239Pu atom ratios of bottom sediments in the deep NW Pacific Ocean and its marginal seas (East, Okhotsk seas) were in the range of 0.15-0.23. A little elevated 240Pu/239Pu atom ratios in the bottom layer sediment may be due to Pu released into the environment during the pre-moratorium period, having high 240Pu/239Pu atom ratios and low 238Pu/239+240Pu activity ratios.
A tanulmányban a fejlesztő államot az érdekcsoportokkal fenntartott kapcsolata szempontjából tárgyaljuk. A latin-amerikai gazdaságok kudarcának vizsgálatát követően az ázsiai fejlesztő állam bemutatására kerül sor, hiszen Japán, Dél-Korea és Tajvan az első valóban sikeres államilag irányított iparosítási programot hajtotta végre. Ezt követően az ázsiai fejlesztő állam korszerű modelljének is tekinthető Szingapúr esete kerül ismertetésre. A következtetésekben az állam érdekcsoportoktól való autonómiájának fontosságát hangsúlyozzuk.
Authors:J. Lim, J. Lee, G. Sun, J. Moon, Y. Chung, and K. Kim
In order to expand the utilization of phellinus mushrooms as a dietary supplement, we attempted to evaluate the chemical composition by measuring its inorganic elemental
content with the aid of instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA). Twenty seven phellinus mushrooms samples were collected from Korea, Cambodia, and Vietnam. A total of 28 elements were analyzed in the phellinus mushroom samples using the INAA. The concentrations of Ca, K, and Mg are much higher than those of other elements in phellinus mushroom samples. The sum of determined elemental concentration in Cambodia samples was about 2–6 times higher than those
in Korea and Vietnam samples, respectively. Based on our measurement data, we attempted to discriminate the geographical origin
using principal components analysis (PCA) and linear discriminant analysis (LDA). The geogrpahical origins of all samples
were clearly classified with correct classification rate of 100%.