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The Georgics is in generally considered as a linear composition established by four major topics corresponding to the four books. The analysis seeks to demonstrate the presence of another, less evident structure of the poem. This is constituted by the mythological allusions made at the stylistic level of the text, in the description of the different beings, plants and animals, stars and mountains. Most of the allusions are aetiological myths with a tragic love story. The series of these reminiscences serves to prepare the final erotic-aetiological myth at the narrative level, so the story of Orpheus, Aristaeus and the bees can be regarded as an organic part of the poem (against the tradition of the laudes Galli). The analysis of the hidden erotic myths may help the interpretation of the Vergilian notion of durus amor which, together with the labor improbus, are the principles of human existence.

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Defixiones or curse tablets give evidence of a magical practice — widespread in ancient Greece and Rome — that was “intended to influence, by supernatural means, the actions or welfare of persons or animals against their will.” These curse inscriptions are an important written source for linguists, since they document an everyday non-literary language use; at the same time they can provide direct information about the verbal elements of an ancient magic ritual. The purpose of my study on the Latin defixionum tabellae , that I collected into an electronic database, is to analyze the magical spells from a pragmalinguistic point of view. This approach considers language within its context, i.e. it does not only concentrate on grammatical structures but views language as a functional whole within a special communicative setting.

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Developments in East German agriculture after 1945 and 1990 are illustrated through a case study set in the region south of Leipzig. Beginning in the 1950s, the collectivization of agricultural production had led, by the mid-1970s, to the consolidation of fully collectivized cooperative farms (LPG type III), either at the village level or in areas encompassing neighboring villages. Thereafter, planners promoted industrialization, specialization, and cooperation among neighboring LPG type III. The result was areas of “cooperation” with LPG for plant production at their centers and one to three LPG for animal production attached to them. In 1990, such areas of “cooperation” served as points of departure for privatization under the new law. In the case study, the transformation of an area of “cooperation” resulted in a new cooperative farm, a few family farms, a meat processing plant, and even a bison ranch. Explanations for these developments are provided.

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Wall-paintings at Carnuntum (Lower Austria). Review about the current results . Apart from two articles from H. Brandenstein the ancient paintings of Carnuntum were unknown. Along with the excavation-projects which started in 2001 some wall-paintings were uncovered in the houses I and II (Figs 1–3) . But during the researches in the villa urbana a fountain was examined which was nearly completely filled with roman paintings. Most of them are part from two different ceiling-paintings which were destroyed by an earthquake in the middle of the 4 th century. One could be identified as a coffered ceiling-decoration (Fig. 4) with red and blue coffers. The other consists of several frames with two winged persons and some animals (Figs 4–5) .

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Summary In this paper I read Géza Gárdonyi's novel, The Eclipse of the Crescent Moon, as a narrative of the Hungarian nation. After surveying the reception of the novel in the past century, pointing out the difficulties Hungarian literary criticism was facing when dealing with The Eclipse, I proceed to read the novel itself as a text that depicts an “imagined community' of Hungarians. I argue that while the Hungarian Self is imagined as an innocent child in the novel, the Turkish Other becomes depicted as a cunning animal dominated by primary instincts. I read The Eclipse as the story of expulsion from Paradise, invaded by the Turkish snake, focusing on the different paths the novel's main characters, Gergely and Éva, take, with the aim of analysing the feminine and masculine aspects of the nation imagined by the novel through their diverging stories.

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The study discusses and presents the archaeological phenomena of burial practices observed in the graves of the Early Avar Age cemetery of Szegvár-Oromdűlő. Besides orientation, these are the three types of differently formed graves, the stumped variant of fractional animal burials, the spatial separation of the deceased and the accompanying animal remains, and the custom of interring pottery and bone-in meat (lamb rump bone) into graves. It analyses these important but so far not thoroughly exploited groups of sources in regard of the 6th–7th century burials of a larger geographical unit, the Trans-Tisa (Tiszántúl) region, since the population of this region can be better characterized by their funerary practices than their tangible cultural heritage. In addition, it refers to the presence or absence of these characteristics in the burials of a smaller area within the investigated region — the territory bordered by the Körös, Tisza and Maros Rivers — dating to the second half of the Avar Age, and through this, to their continuity.

It delineates the grave goods of female and male burials which represent the inheritance of the first generation among the graves of the Trans-Tisa region. Their common feature is their different provenance. Thus there are grave goods with Eastern European, steppe connections, grave goods of Byzantine taste or origin, as well as grave goods of local, Gepidic provenance among them.

Communities of the Trans-Tisa region in the 6th–7th century Carpathian Basin are characterized by a chain of significant archaeological phenomena of burial customs exclusively attributed to them, which were commonly spread within a certain area and continuously practiced for generations. Based on these features, the population that settled here can be well outlined in respect of origin, traditions and cultural affiliation.

In the author’s opinion it can be presumed by the sparse reports of Byzantine sources that this region was occupied and inhabited by a population referred to as Kutrigurs by contemporary sources and steppe people led by them.

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The paper considers the verbs which in Slavonic languages mean dying. The starting point is Bulgarian verbs and their equivalents in the other languages. The material relative to the remaining languages is not complete, but large enough to represent the whole. The subjects of interest are the verbs and phrases from the rural dialects only. The Slavonic world of dying is very rich. It offers old associations going back to proto-Slavic, as well as modern local ones. Out of 47 verbs and 10 phrases, 15 verbs and 2 phrases can be regarded as proto-Slavonic, because they occur in the form and meaning discussed here in a considerable part of all Slavic territory. Variety of the associations is amazing: Dying makes the Slavs think of the end, as such of the termination of any action symbolising life (the way of life, going, running, doing something, burning), of expiration, departure, leaving the body by the soul, of the symptoms concomitant with the death of a man or animal (becoming stiff, grinning, kicking, staring, straightening), and of sounds (cracking, snapping, striking). It is astonishing that the departure of a man from this world seems to produce many more emotions than the birth of a new man.

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Abstract  

During the last decade or so, the literary writings that portray the lives of the wolves and their relationship with the humans sprouted and prospered in China. These wolf writings all give very vivid and appealing portraits of wolves, their wild existence, their character, their relationship with men, and their role in the ecosystem. They have shaped our understanding of and attitudes towards animals and nature, which is of great value to the ongoing building of ecological civilization in China as well as in the world. In general, the Chinese wolf literature has inevitably been influenced and inspired by the long and rich traditions of the wolf myths and literature in the West, particularly those works of Jack London, Rudyard Kipling and other Western writers since the end of the 19th century. With due attention paid to the influence of the Western wolf literature, this essay will mainly analyze the three most important Chinese wolf novels—The Wolf Child, Remembering Wolves and The Wolf Totem, both separately and with reference to one another. It argues that the representations of wolves in them subvert the stereotypical hostile images of wolf in traditional Chinese culture, bring about fresh reflections on the cultural and spiritual symptoms of (post)modernity and globalization, and finally lead to a growing ecological consciousness and the call for balance between humans and nonhumans.

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For the nomads of the Eurasian steppes, milk and its derivatives such as cream, skim, buttermilk, cheese, curds, arkhi (an alcoholic beverage distilled from whey) and koumiss (slightly alcoholic fermented mare’s milk) are not simply a food but also part of their nourishment system and of their whole culture. Milk and milk products are consumed by nomads mostly in the the summer-autumn season when consumption of meat is rare, because animals begin to fatten only after the end of spring. It is in summer and autumn that Mongols celebrate a series of festivals of all-national, clan and family scale. These rituals demonstrate the special importance of everything connected with milk and known in the palette of their culture as tsagaan idee , i.e. “white food”. This food possesses a sacred meaning in various ritual situations. Freshly obtained milk was rarely consumed but it served as a daily sacrifice to spirits and deities of land, heaven and hearth. Milk used to be sprinkled behind the departing traveller, it was offered to an honoured guest or to the bride at the wedding when she arrived at the bridegroom’s house. Milk was also sprinkled on felt in its processing with the words “let your felt be soft and warm”. Milk was poured on the head of the winning horse in races or sprinkled on the head of foals and calves before castration. Koumiss with its sacred white colour served as a basic sacrifice in many rituals.

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The Balkans, particularly southern and central, were sparsely populated in the Mesolithic and the occupation networks in that period were discontinous and highly diversified, contrasting with the density and homogeneity of the Early Neolithic. The aim of this paper is to describe the environmental conditions of the Mesolithic sites in relation to Early Holocene climatic fluctuations and to discuss the causes of specificity and diversity of culture and behaviour at this period.

Some general trends are observable in the adaptation to Early Holocene environments (trends in faunal exploitation; for ex. shift from high ranked large game to low ranked small animals) but also particular adaptations to local conditions (technological changes due to difficulties in access to better quality lithic raw materials, adaptations to coastal or to terrestrial resources reflecting the unique features of site use, etc).

The diversity of the Mesolithic is also reflected in cultural taxonomy: in some sequences continuity of the Balkan Epigravettian techno-morphological tradition can be seen as opposed, in other sequences, to highly isolated groups with technology and tool morphology adapted to local raw materials and specific activities. The Balkan Mesolithic was not completely cut-off from the Western Mediterranean techno-morphological influences (particularly in Southern Greece) and from the Anatolian lithic traditions (seen only in the Northern Aegean). A more intensive network of marine contacts is confirmed by obsidian circulation in the Aegean Basin.

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