As bas-reliefs of a similar standard are not known in the early Bizantine world, the styles of the figures and the ornamental elements of the jug are compared to the relief works of other fields of art (silver toreutics, ebony carvings, plastic relief, mosaics), since they met the same ideological and aesthetic demands, which necessarily led to the same stylistic solutions
. The scenes are characteristically divided into isolated zones without the existence of a narrative contact. The isolated scenes represent combats between people and animals
in their pure dramatic appearances. This suspense is eased by the agility that can be read from the posture of the hunters. Yet they are hunting scenes and as antithetic combats they bear isolated effects on the spectators. The representation of the people and the animal is true to nature, they do not cover each other and thus they have strong contours and a more emphatic plasticity. Contrary to the individual scenes, the composition of the friezes on the Budakalász jug does not give a dynamic impression since the scale relations are diverse in the individual scenes. A definite aspiration to a formal abstraction can be felt in the composition of the friezes and the order of the scenes. The message is cyclically repeated in the cyclical iteration of the endless series of pictures. The hunter is not an everyday person: he is a hero
over the difficulties of life.
This study deals with the Ancient Latin and Old Hungarian adaptations of the most drastic myth of Tereus, Philomela and Progne. Ovid inserted the story into the 6th book of the Metamomorphoses (lines 424–674). István Gyöngyösi, called “Hungarian Ovid” by right, adapted an Ovidian text in compliance with baroque literary and translation aspects. The translation makes part of the poem called Csalárd Cupido (Fraudulent Cupido) composed in hardly identifiable epic genre in the 17th century. The Ovidian insertion became the third part of the four-part poem, focusing on the demonstration of the outrages caused by Cupido. The main characteristics of the Gyöngyösi’s adaptation are: the domestication (for example in the case of the Dionysian rites), the large insertions, the enlargement and amplification, the borrowings and changings of the motifs and patterns and the spectacular actualisation. The motive of the fire is, for example, much more emphased in the Hungarian version. Both of the authors makes capital of the rhetorics, but the Hungarian text turns up the rhetorical elements and uses them as the instrument or device of the retardation and of the itemization or specification. The animal motifs being found several times in the text are used to exagerate or heighten the drastic apspects and to point out to demonstrate some animal qualities of the human beeings.
Although nature looms large throughout Homer’s Odyssey, literary critics have entirely neglected to discuss his construction of the natural world in this foundational Western work.
This neglect might be the result of two factors: the blurred line between geographical and fantastical locales in Odysseus’
travels and the blurred line between natural forces and deities. This essay recognizes that Homer not only reconstructs the
Mediterranean world in his epic through detailed references to weather, geology, plants, birds, and animals but also that
his similes suggest a consciousness of inter-species relationships. Principally, however, this essay argues, as does William
Cronon, that “relationships, processes, and systems are as ecological as they are cultural,” and that Odysseus’ response to
nature may usefully be understood in relation to three ecocritical models: the anthropocentric or domination model, the stewardship
model, and the biomorphic model. His exploitative and aggressive behavior toward the Cyclopes, Circe, and the cattle of the
Sun is contrasted with his recognition upon his homecoming of his own animal nature and his appreciation of the agrarian and
pastoral life. While the tradition of writing in The Odyssey genre has vigorously continued in Western literature, only recently have contemporary environmental writers moved toward
a recognition of the threat of the anthropocentric perspective to the imperative of working toward the stewardship and biomorphic
This article deals with a little researched area which touches on set phraseological units in Bulgarian language and how they differ from their free counterparts. The study focuses on phraseological units expressing peoples' characteristics, which are based on associations with the animal world. These units rely primarily on common aspects of animal and human behaviour, which has bred set phraseological combinations in language.The authors have analyzed the principle semes in the discussed examples because only through exploring their specific nature will it become possible to examine the relationships between the vivid semantics of zoonome phraseological units and the character of their components. Research shows that set zoonome phraseological units based on the names of pets are much more frequently used in language than those based on the names of wild fowl.The paper distinguishes between three semantically different types of phraseological units - 'man as a living creature', 'man as an intelligent creature' and 'man as a social creature'. The main implications of the study are that zoonome components of phraseological units contribute to a more diverse description of man, bringing to the foreground a variety of characteristics about him. They also serve to express abstract notions, as well as to evaluate personality.
Developments in East German agriculture after 1945 and 1990 are illustrated through a case study set in the region south of Leipzig. Beginning in the 1950s, the collectivization of agricultural production had led, by the mid-1970s, to the consolidation of fully collectivized cooperative farms (LPG type III), either at the village level or in areas encompassing neighboring villages. Thereafter, planners promoted industrialization, specialization, and cooperation among neighboring LPG type III. The result was areas of “cooperation” with LPG for plant production at their centers and one to three LPG for animal production attached to them. In 1990, such areas of “cooperation” served as points of departure for privatization under the new law. In the case study, the transformation of an area of “cooperation” resulted in a new cooperative farm, a few family farms, a meat processing plant, and even a bison ranch. Explanations for these developments are provided.
The population of the villages and market towns
in the hilly areas of Hungary have countless ties to the forest. However,
forest utilisation was restricted by regulations imposed by the state and the
large estate-owners. From the mid-18th century the extent to which serfs and
cotters could use the forest and the services they were required to provide
were regulated uniformly at the national level. Village people regularly
violated the central rules and measures of the estate-owners for protection of
the forest, in order to provide themselves with firewood, graze animals and
sell timber. The peasant forest communities formed after the liberation of the
serfs in 1848 were established on the basis of national laws, but local
traditions and local economic interests also influenced their operation. The
forest communities themselves regulated the management of the common forest
assets and the share of the profits. Their functioning was characterised by
internal autonomy and continuous collective control.
Wall-paintings at Carnuntum (Lower Austria). Review about the current results
. Apart from two articles from H. Brandenstein the ancient paintings of Carnuntum were unknown. Along with the excavation-projects which started in 2001 some wall-paintings were uncovered in the houses I and II
. But during the researches in the
a fountain was examined which was nearly completely filled with roman paintings. Most of them are part from two different ceiling-paintings which were destroyed by an earthquake in the middle of the 4
century. One could be identified as a coffered ceiling-decoration
with red and blue coffers. The other consists of several frames with two winged persons and some animals
The Georgics is in generally considered as a linear composition established by four major topics corresponding to the four books. The analysis seeks to demonstrate the presence of another, less evident structure of the poem. This is constituted by the mythological allusions made at the stylistic level of the text, in the description of the different beings, plants and animals, stars and mountains. Most of the allusions are aetiological myths with a tragic love story. The series of these reminiscences serves to prepare the final erotic-aetiological myth at the narrative level, so the story of Orpheus, Aristaeus and the bees can be regarded as an organic part of the poem (against the tradition of the laudes Galli). The analysis of the hidden erotic myths may help the interpretation of the Vergilian notion of durus amor which, together with the labor improbus, are the principles of human existence.
or curse tablets give evidence of a magical practice — widespread in ancient Greece and Rome — that was “intended to influence, by supernatural means, the actions or welfare of persons or animals against their will.” These curse inscriptions are an important written source for linguists, since they document an everyday non-literary language use; at the same time they can provide direct information about the verbal elements of an ancient magic ritual. The purpose of my study on the Latin
, that I collected into an electronic database, is to analyze the magical spells from a pragmalinguistic point of view. This approach considers language within its context, i.e. it does not only concentrate on grammatical structures but views language as a functional whole within a special communicative setting.
Summary In this paper I read Géza Gárdonyi's novel, The Eclipse of the Crescent Moon, as a narrative of the Hungarian nation. After surveying the reception of the novel in the past century, pointing out the difficulties Hungarian literary criticism was facing when dealing with The Eclipse, I proceed to read the novel itself as a text that depicts an “imagined community' of Hungarians. I argue that while the Hungarian Self is imagined as an innocent child in the novel, the Turkish Other becomes depicted as a cunning animal dominated by primary instincts. I read The Eclipse as the story of expulsion from Paradise, invaded by the Turkish snake, focusing on the different paths the novel's main characters, Gergely and Éva, take, with the aim of analysing the feminine and masculine aspects of the nation imagined by the novel through their diverging stories.