Authors:E. Vamanu, A. Vamanu, D. Pelinescu, S. Niţă, N. Rusu, and N. Popa
The synthesis of exopolysaccharides was determined for the Streptococcus sp. IL5 strain in MRS and M17 medium, with carbon sources such as glucose, lactose and sucrose. According to the obtained results, by using glucose as carbon source, the highest quantity of exopolysaccharides was obtained, namely of 400 mg l−1. The influence of various glucose concentrations (5, 10, 15, 20%) on exopolysaccharide production was tested. It resulted in that, at a concentration of 15% glucose, a maximum quantity of synthesized exopolysaccharides was obtained. The influence of temperature and of pH on the exopolysaccharide synthesis capacity of the strain was tested as well. From the tests the temperature of 37 °C and pH 7 proved to be the ideal parameters for obtaining a maximum exopolysaccharides quantity. Based on chromatographic methods, the content of synthesized polysaccharide was determined, consisting of 31.87% anhydrous glucose with a degree of polymerization of 36.7%.
Authors:L. Körmendy, E. Zukál, I. Csapó, and N. Török
The aim of this study was a survey of relationships used for calculating ‘meat content’ with respect to the QUID regulation (Commission Directive
, 2001). The recommended equations are presented in a concise form. The advantages of a possible introduction of the meat equivalent concept are also treated [assessment of lean content of the meat ingredient(s)]. A non-negligible condition for applying the QUID equations is, in principle, the equality of the fat-free protein concentrations of the various tissue types in the raw meat materials. This needs an adjustment of the protein concentrations of the recipes to a reference value (PFFref), which can be achieved by effective or virtual addition of water to the formulation or ‘removal’ of water from it. The influence of moisture loss during meat processing on QUID is also discussed. The results of various calculation methods are presented with examples.
Authors:K. Jurica, I. Brčić Karačonji, D. Lasić, D. Vukić Lušić, S. Anić Jurica, and D. Lušić
Phthalates are ubiquitous environmental contaminants that, due to their lipophilicity, migrate more readily into beverages with higher ethanol content. The aim of this work was to study the occurrence of phthalates in samples during the plum spirit production and in the final product, plum spirit manufactured by registered producers from five European countries, using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). A decreasing trend of mean values was observed for diethyl phthalate (DEP), di-iso-butyl phthalate (DiBP), and di-n-butyl phthalate (DBP) as the distillation process went on. Levels of benzyl-butyl phthalate (BBP) and di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) increased in the distillation phase compared to concentrations in the preceding phases. In commercial plum spirits, DEHP and DiBP were detected in the highest concentrations. Results also indicated that a moderate daily consumption of plum spirit does not pose a health risk regarding the Tolerable Daily Intake of BBP, DEHP, and DBP
Authors:Cs. Mohácsi-Farkas, G. Kiskó, L. Mészáros, and J. Farkas
Laboratory batches of fresh tomato juices were treated in several experimental trials by high hydrostatic pressure alone or in combination with various concentrations of oregano, thyme or dill seed oils. Lactic acid bacteria formed the dominating component of the spoilage microbiota during post-processing storage at 15 °C causing spoilage of the untreated samples within 4 days. One tenth of a percent oregano or thyme oils at least doubled the microbiological shelf life, while their respective concentrations of 0.5% alone, or 400 MPa 5-20 min high hydrostatic pressure treatment alone resulted in microbial stability for at least two weeks. Two hundred MPa for 10 min resulted only in an approx. 3 days delay of spoilage, whereas 0.1% thyme oil increased the efficiency of this moderate UHP-treatment, resulting in a microbiologically stable product for at least 3 weeks at the storage temperature applied.
Authors:C. Contreras-Castillo, M. Trindade, and P. Felício
The objective of this study was to characterise and compare the quality of the MSMs obtained from carcasses from breeding and laying hens to provide useful information for the processing industry. The composition of the mechanically separated meat (MSM) varied between the two groups. Laying hens contained the most crude protein (P<0.05) and high ash content (P<0.05). Calcium concentrations and bone contents were higher (P<0.05) for laying (448 mg/100 g and 1.25%, respectively) than for breeding hens (299 mg/100 g and 0.78%, respectively). Levels of unsaturated fatty acids for laying and breeding hens (75.89 and 72.82%, respectively) and cholesterol concentrations (73 and 61 mg/100 g, respectively) were higher (P<0.05) for laying hens than for breeding ones.
The adsorption properties of natural zeolite (clinoptilolite) has been studied in order to determine its applicability for copper and zinc removal in acid mine drainage treatment process. For purpose of these experiments the determination of the sorption equilibrium and removal efficiencies were performed under batch conditions using single and dual-component solutions. The experiments were carried out under acidic conditions (pH approx. 4). In general, the obtained results from kinetic experiments showed rapid decrease of the metal concentration during the first 10 min, corresponding to ~80% total removal of ions from both single and dualcomponent solutions. This initial rapid period was followed by a further slow drop in metals concentration caused by ion-exchange in deeper structure of zeolite.Preliminary tests on the real samples of acid mine drainage from Smolnik mine, Slovakia, showed that natural zeolite has a potential as an alternative low cost adsorptive material for acid mine drainage treatment.
Authors:S. Lamo-Castellví, W. Ratphtagsanti, and V. Balasubramaniam
The objective of this work was to study the effect of nisin, alone or combined with sucrose laurate ester (SL), on enhancing Bacillus amyloliquefaciens Fad 82 spores inactivation by pressure-assisted thermal processing (PATP). Spores of B. amyloliquefaciens (108 CFU ml−1) were suspended in sterile phosphate buffer saline (pH 7.6) with concentrations of nisin (0, 100, 200, 1000, 1500 and 2000 IU ml−1) and 1.0% of SL, and combinations of nisin (1000, 1500 and 2000 IU ml−1) and SL (1.1%), and treated by PATP (700 MPa and 105 °C, for 1 min). Nisin did not show any synergetic effect with PATP in all the concentrations tested. Instead, 1.0% of SL alone was effective in enhancing inactivation.
Authors:L.F. Pérez-Romero, F.T. Arroyo, C. Santamaría, M. Camacho, and A. Daza
The fruit quality parameters of Prunus armeniaca L. cv ‘Ninfa’ grafted on ‘Myrobalan 29C’ (Prunus cerasifera Ehrh.) and ‘Real Fino’ apricot seedling (Prunus armeniaca L.) were analysed in an experimental orchard under organic management. The study was performed between 2010 and 2012 in the province of Seville (SW Spain). Colour, fruit and stone weights, firmness, soluble solid concentration, and acidity were measured for fruit quality evaluation. Trunk cross-sectional area, main branches, and fruit yield were also determined. In general, ‘Myrobalan 29C’ rootstock produced fruit slightly larger in size and with a bigger weight. By contrast, apricots on ‘Myrobalan 29C’ had less firmness and a lower solid soluble concentration than on ‘Real Fino’. There was little difference in the colour, acidity, and stone dry weights. Trees on ‘Real Fino’ had larger areas of trunk and branches but no significant differences were obtained in relation to fruit yields.
The aim of the present study was to test the antioxidant activity of rosemary extract and its mixture with propylene glycol on the stability of fat in butter. Rosemary extract was added at a concentration of 0.02% (w/w) and mixture of rosemary extract with propylene glycol at a concentration of 0.25% (w/w) to the cream before churning. For comparison, control samples without added antioxidant were also prepared and tested. Samples were stored at 4 °C and at 20 °C for 27 days and their peroxide values were determined periodically. The measurement of peroxide values for butter at 60 and 98 °C was also performed. Activity of rosemary extracts was compared with synthetic antioxidant BHT. The rosemary extract and its mixture with propylene glycol exhibited strong antioxidant activity in butter when added to a cream before churning and in an aqueous emulsion system of β-carotene and linolenic acid.
Phase diagrams of aqueous whey protein (WP) and polysaccharide (PS) mixtures, including carboxymethylcellulose (CMC), k-carrageenan (C) and locust bean gum (LG) are presented in this paper at pH from 5.0 to 7.0 with 0.1 to 0.5 M NaCl. Thermodynamic incompatibility of WP-CMC, WP-LG and WP-C systems increased as pH was close to the isoelectric point of WP (pI=5.2). Increasing salt concentration (0.1 to 0.5 M) increased the incompatibility of WP-LG and WP-CMC systems. However, the effect of NaCl on thermodynamic incompatibility of WP-C was the opposite, i.e. increasing salt concentration decreased the thermodynamic incompatibility of the system. The type of the polysaccharides was the critical factor, which affected the compatibility of WP-PS systems. The thermodynamic compatibility of WP-PS systems decreased in the following order: locust gum ≯ carboxymethylcellulose ≯ k-carrageenan.